Syria, Nine Grueling Years — John Wreford Photographer

Sitting in silence on a red sofa, gaze transfixed to a muted tv. January 2011. I had hardly left that sofa just watching history unfold via al Jazeera, this time I was squeezed between Syrian friends with tears in their eyes. We were in Syria and the revolution was in Egypt and of all the […]

via Syria, Nine Grueling Years — John Wreford Photographer

In Da’wah: Violence Doesn’t Bring Any Good

Using gentleness with those who are hoped to embrace Islam is a desirable thing, in order to attract their hearts to it. This is with regards to the disbelievers; what then should the attitude be towards someone who is hoped to make repentance while he is a Muslim who believes in Allah and His Messenger? Is he not worthier of gentleness than the disbeliever who is hoped to embrace Islam?

In Da’wah (calling to Islam), gentleness is a form of a kind treatment that opens the heart of the recipient. This is one of the established principles of Da‘wah in Islam that is uniformly mirrored in the Quranic discourse and the practices of all Messengers of Allah with their peoples. It is more evident in the story of Prophet Ibraaheem (Abraham), may Allah exalt his mention, when he was inviting his father to believe in Allah. He repeatedly called him “O my Father”, thereby hoping to appeal to him through this firm father-son bond. It is also quite clear in the story of Prophet Moosa (Moses), may Allah exalt his mention, with Pharaoh, who claimed to be God. Allah The Exalted commanded Moosa and Haaroon (Aaron), may Allah exalt their mention, to invite Pharaoh to believe in Him with kindness; He Says (what means): “And speak to him with gentle speech that perhaps he may be reminded or fear [Allah].” [Quran 20:44] There is no doubt that gentle speech is more likely to be responded to positively.

Islam preaches this same general attitude when calling people to Allah The Exalted. Rather, the Quran emphasized it and the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) implemented it; Allah The Exalted Says (what means): “And if you had been rude [in speech] and harsh in heart, they would have disbanded from about you. So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult them in the matter.” [Quran 3:159]

Contemplating the Quran, we notice that harshness is not mentioned except in the context of fighting the enemies in battlefields. Here, there is no room for gentle speech as no sound is louder than that of the sword and spear. The rules of efficiency in combat dictate toughness when confronting the enemy until the battle comes to an end. However, even in this context, Islam preaches kindness by establishing the refined etiquette of Jihaad in this glorious religion. There should be no fighting before conducting Da‘wah (calling people to Islam). In fact, the object of Jihaad in Islam is to usher people to guidance; the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) said: ~“If a single person is guided by Allah through you, it will be better for you than a whole lot of red camels.”~~ In Islam, the purpose of Jihaad is not killing people and taking captives and war booty; rather, it is prompted by mercy in all its aspects. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) used to instruct his Companions to observe the Islamic etiquette of war, saying: ~“Set out with the blessing of Allah. Do not kill a decrepit old man, or a child, or a woman; do not steal (from the booty) or act treacherously, and do right and act kindly, for Allah loves those who act kindly.”~~

If Islam preaches kindness and gentleness in the context of war, how about that of Da‘wah?

Violence Yields no Good

Violence in the context of Da‘wah begets no good. Nothing mars Da‘wah more than violence, because the caller to Allah hopes that his call delves into the depths of the recipient to make him a person of God in his conceptions, feelings, perceptions, and attitude. It alters his whole being and transforms him to another person in terms of thought, feeling and willpower. It also targets the community to change its inherited beliefs, deeply rooted traditions, and prevailing moral and social systems that do not conform with the laws of Allah or the tenets of faith and the concepts of truth.

It is thus a substitution at the intellectual, ideological, and emotional levels. It is well known that beliefs and ideologies can never be changed through violence, force, or coercion. Being harbored by the hearts and minds, there is no way to force beliefs and ideas on others. In fact, the only effective means to change beliefs and ideas are persuasion and reasoning.

This can only be achieved by means of wisdom, clever handling of matters, and knowledge of the human nature and man’s innate inclination to hold on to the old norms, while taking into account his inherent inclination to dispute; Allah The Exalted Says (what means): “… but man has ever been, most of anything, [prone to] dispute.” [Quran 18:54] This entails adhering to gentleness and skillfully trying to win the heart and mind of the recipient to soften his heart, weaken his persistent clinging to old ideas and practices, and eliminate his prejudice.

There Should Be no Compulsion in Religion

Allah The Exalted and Glorified does not force anyone to believe in Him or embrace His religion. In fact, He forbade the believers from coercing people into embracing Islam; He Said (what means): “There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion.” [Quran 2:256] Evidently, coercion is utterly pointless as far as beliefs and ideologies are concerned. It does not yield genuine faith, as a person cannot become a true believer under duress.

It goes without saying that Allah The Exalted is able to cause all His servants to be believers; He Says (what means): “And if we had willed, We could have given every soul its guidance…” [Quran 32:13], “And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed – all of them entirely. Then, [O Muhammad], would you compel the people in order that they become believers?” [Quran 10:99]

However, He did not do so and instead provided His servants with clear and compelling evidence to usher them into the correct path, and sent them Messengers to guide them to the truth; Allah The Exalted Says (what means): “[We sent] messengers as bringers of good tidings and warners so that mankind will have no argument against Allah after the messengers.” [Quran 4:165] He then left them the choice to believe or disbelieve so that the consequences would be those of the servant’s own choice, not of someone else’s actions forced on him. Allah The Exalted Says (what means): “so whoever wills – let him believe, and whoever wills – let him disbelieve. Indeed, We have prepared for the wrongdoers a fire whose walls will surround them.” [Quran 18:29]

The Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) lived in Makkah and saw the idols everywhere, yet he did not demolish or burn them. Rather, he continued calling people to Allah and communicating the divine message to them to enlighten their minds, change their false beliefs wisely, and correct their perceptions so that the change would stem from within them out of full conviction.

The Muslim youth around the Messenger of Allah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) were sometimes carried away by zeal for their cause and asked him to take up arms against their enemies. However, he sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) urged them to adhere to patience and commanded them to refrain from fighting the disbelievers until instructed otherwise, and concentrate their efforts, instead, on establishing the prayer and paying the Zakah until the budding Muslim community is strong enough to take the apt measures. Allah The Exalted Says (what means): “Have you not seen those who were told, ‘Restrain your hands [from fighting] and establish prayer and give Zakah’?” [Quran 4:77]

Assume that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) had given in to their wishes and commanded them to fight the disbelievers of the Quraysh, how would have the Muslims, few in number as they were then, been able to confront their enemies? Had the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) demolished the idols around the Ka’bah, what would have been the consequences of such an act?

Saddening Reality

Some ardent Muslim youth in a large Muslim country dug up the graves erected inside mosques and demolished shrines venerated by some misguided Muslims who made offerings to them. These zealous Muslim youth defended their action by bringing forth textual evidence from the Quran and Sunnah regarding the obligation of forbidding such sinful acts. There is no doubt that their intention was good and they sought to enjoin good and forbidding evil. However, their actions incurred adverse consequences; they were arrested and so were large numbers of scholars, seekers of knowledge and religious Muslims. All of them were severely harmed, and their families suffered material and moral harm as well.

Add to that, these shrines were rebuilt better than they were before. In brief, forbidding the evil in this case incurred a graver one.

I recall another incident in a Muslim country where a statue of a naked woman was installed at a square. It was an old worn-out statue that people hardly cared about or noticed. A zealous Muslim young man broke the statue and vandalized it. Perhaps he was somewhat right, but again the consequences were unfavorable; he was arrested and subjected to much suffering, and the officials rebuilt the once-neglected statue, turning it to a better and more noticeable version. It became the talk of the town and the incident actually drew people’s attention to it even more.

We do not accept or approve of preserving such idols and statues or of building shrines and allowing people to circumambulate them. We do not accept or approve of any sinful act committed in a Muslim country; however, we must consider the consequences of actions and their results. Forbidding an evil may be considered an evil itself if it led to an even graver evil, as Muslim scholars agreed.

Addressing corruption and evils with violence or in a manner that does not conform to the principles of the Sharia and the due conditions of enjoining good and forbidding evil often incurs legal implications on the doer under the man-made laws. It also constitutes a major irritant for some influential notables, who benefit from preserving such corruption and evil. Thereupon, the caller to Allah would be exposing himself to the punishment and oppression of authorities and no good would be generated from his action. It would not benefit the call to Islam or Muslims in the slightest. His efforts would be wasted and his call would be rejected and prevented from spreading.

We are not suggesting that the caller to Allah should be a coward; rather, we want him to expand his mental and psychological horizons and address the root causes of the problem wisely and patiently, taking into account the beginnings and endings of matters. This is the normal way of addressing problems.

In fact, demolishing idols and statues does not eradicate corruption or uproot disbelief, and it will not change the situation in the slightest. On the contrary, people would more likely erect new ones or rebuild the broken ones to be better than before, and they may be blinded by stubbornness from seeing the truth. Most likely, such an act would enrage them, driving them to retaliate against Muslims and their Messenger sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) as did the people of Ibraaheem (Abraham), may Allah exalt his mention, when he demolished their idols.

The Role of the Caller to Allah

The role of the caller to Allah is not to kill idol worshipers. Killing them is pointless because it does not end idol worship. His role is not to demolish these idols, while their love remains vivid in the hearts of their worshipers; because, as we said before, they would rebuild them and make them better than they were. Rather, the role of the caller to Allah is to demolish the idols within the hearts and minds of the worshippers until their love is eradicated and people learn that these idols are false gods that do not benefit or harm themselves, let alone their worshipers. He is required to uproot the reverence, love, and glorification for such idols from the hearts and channel that reverence, love, and glorification to the One who is truly worthy of them. By doing so, the worshippers will demolish the idols with their own hands after the callers to Allah have demolished them within their hearts. This is the real change, and this is the role, job and duty of the callers to Allah.


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Muslims Trading with Other Countries?

Question:
My question is regarding trade. As far as I know, in Islam it is allowed to do trade with Christians, Jews (Book Holders) Today most of the Muslim countries do their businesses with Japan, Korea and those countries which are neither Jewish or Christian. Is this right? Secondly, the goods that Muslim country buy from these countries is sold in local markets. Are Muslim masses allowed to buy these goods?

Answer:
All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammad sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (may Allaah exalt his mention) is His slave and Messenger.

In principle, it is permissible for a Muslim to buy from Jews, Christians, polytheists, and all other non-Muslims or to sell them goods within the limits of the Shari’ah.

However, any involvement in Riba (interest and/or usury), selling pork and the like are forbidden. Therefore, there is no harm to purchase their food, drinks, garments, means of transport, etc. as long as they do not contain any prohibition of the Islamic Shari’ah.

Allaah Knows best.


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Reconcilation of The Place from Where The Isra’ Journey Began

Soruce: https://www.islamweb.net/en/fatwa/142139/the-place-from-where-the-israa-journey-began

There are different narrations about the place from where the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (SAW) was ascended to the heavens. One narration reads: “…while I was resting in the House [i.e. the Ka’bah]”, and another narration reads: “…while I was in Al-Hateem (Al-Hijr, i.e. the area adjacent to the Ka’bah enclosed by a low semi-circular wall).”, another narration reads: “…(while I was) in Al-Hijr”, and another narration states: “The ceiling of my house was opened while I was in Makkah.” Another narration reads that he spent the night in the house of Umm Haani’ who said: “I missed him by night and he said that Jibreel came to him…”

The scholars may Allah have mercy upon them reconciled between these different narrations; Ibn Hajar may Allah have mercy upon him said,

“To reconcile between these statements, the Prophet SAW was sleeping in the house of Umm Haani’ and her house was in the Sh’ib (valley) of Abi Taalib and the ceiling of his house was opened – the house here belongs to him because he used to dwell in it – and from it [the opening in the ceiling of the house] the angel descended and took him out from the house to the mosque and there he [Prophet SAW] was lying down and sleepy. Moreover, in a Mursal Hadeeth (i.e. narrated by a Tabi’ie (successor of the Prophet’s companions) while omitting the companion’s name whom he heard the Hadeeth from) reported by Ibn ‘Is’haaq from Al-Hasan Al-Basri may Allah have mercy upon him it states that Jibreel came to him and he took him out to the mosque and he made him mount the Buraaq (a very vast animal whose stride is the farthest distance its eye can see); indeed, this strengthens this reconciliation.”

Allah Knows best.


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Mi’raj: Journey of The Prophet SAW

All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammad sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (SAW ) is His slave and Messenger.

The details of the night of Al-Mi’raj (the Ascension) are reported in Al-Bukhari and Muslim. Here we present the translation of the text as reported in the collection of narrations by Al-Bukhari, may Allaah have mercy upon him.

Anas ibn Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated from Malik ibn Sasaah, may Allah be pleased with them both, said that the Messenger of Allah SAW described to them his Night Journey saying: “While I was lying in Al-Haatim or Al-Hijr, suddenly someone came to me and cut my body open from here to here.” I [Anas] asked Al-Jarud who was by my side, ‘What does he mean?’ He said, ‘It means from his throat to his pubic area,’ or said, ‘From the top of the chest.’

“The Prophet SAW further said: ‘He then took out my heart. Then a gold tray of Faith was brought to me and my heart was washed and was filled (with Faith) and then returned to its original place. Then a white animal which was smaller than a mule and bigger than a donkey was brought to me.’ (On this Al-Jarud asked, “Was it the Buraaq, O Abu Hamzah?” I (i.e. Anas) replied in the affirmative).

“The Prophet SAW said:

‘The animal’s step (was so wide that it) reached the farthest point within reach of the animal’s sight. I was carried on it, and Jibreel (Gabriel) set out with me till we reached the nearest heaven. When he asked for the gate to be opened, it was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Jibreel answered, ‘Jibreel.’ It was asked, ‘Who is accompanying you?’ Jibreel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has Muhammad been called?’ Jibreel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said, ‘He is welcomed. What an excellent visit is his!’ The gate was opened, and when I went over the first heaven, I saw Aadam (Adam) there. Jibreel said (to me), ‘This is your father, Adam; pay him your greetings.’ So I greeted him and he returned the greeting to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious son and pious Prophet.’

Then Jibreel ascended with me until we reached the second heaven. Jibreel asked for the gate to be opened. It was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Jibreel answered, ‘Jibreel.’ It was asked, ‘Who is accompanying you?’ Jibreel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Jibreel answered in the affirmative. Then it was said, ‘He is welcomed. What an excellent visit is his!’ The gate was opened. When I went over the second heaven, there I saw Yahya (i.e. John) and ‘Eesa (i.e. Jesus) who were cousins of each other. Jibreel said (to me), ‘These are Yahya and ‘Eesa; pay them your greetings.’ So I greeted them and both of them returned my greetings to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet.’

Then Jibreel ascended with me to the third heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Jibreel replied, ‘Jibreel.’ It was asked, ‘Who is accompanying you?’ Jibreel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Jibreel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said, ‘He is welcomed, what an excellent visit is his!’ The gate was opened, and when I went over the third heaven, there I saw Yoosuf (Joseph). Jibreel said (to me), ‘This is Yoosuf; pay him your greetings.’ So I greeted him and he returned the greeting to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet.’

Then Jibreel ascended with me to the fourth heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Jibreel replied, ‘Jibreel.’ It was asked, ‘Who is accompanying you?’ Jibreel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Jibreel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said, ‘He is welcomed, what an excellent visit is his!’ The gate was opened, and when I went over the fourth heaven, there I saw Idrees. Jibreel said (to me), ‘This is Idrees; pay him your greetings.’ So I greeted him and he returned the greeting to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet.’

Then Jibreel ascended with me to the fifth heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Jibreel replied, ‘Jibreel.’ It was asked. ‘Who is accompanying you?’ Jibreel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Jibreel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said, ‘He is welcomed, what an excellent visit is his!’ So when I went over the fifth heaven, there I saw Haaroon (i.e. Aaron), Jibreel said, (to me). This is Haaroon; pay him your greetings.’ I greeted him and he returned the greeting to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet.’

Then Jibreel ascended with me to the sixth heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Jibreel replied, ‘Jibreel.’ It was asked, ‘Who is accompanying you?’ Jibreel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Jibreel replied in the affirmative. It was said, ‘He is welcomed. What an excellent visit is his!’ When I went (over the sixth heaven), there I saw Moses. Gabriel said (to me),’ This is Moosa (Moses); pay him your greeting. So I greeted him and he returned the greetings to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet.’ When I left him (i.e. Moses) he wept. Someone asked him, ‘What makes you weep?’ Moosa said, ‘I weep because after me there has been sent (as Prophet) a young man whose followers will enter Paradise in greater numbers than my followers.’

Then Jibreel ascended with me to the seventh heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked, ‘Who is it?’ Jibreel replied, ‘Jibreel.’ It was asked,’ Who is accompanying you?’ Jibreel replied, ‘Muhammad.’ It was asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Jibreel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said, ‘He is welcomed. What an excellent visit is his!’So when I went (over the seventh heaven), there I saw Ibraaheem (Abraham). Jibreel said (to me), ‘This is your father; pay your greetings to him.’ So I greeted him and he returned the greetings to me and said, ‘You are welcomed, O pious son and pious Prophet.’

Then I was made to ascend to Sidratul-Muntaha (i.e. the farthest Lote Tree). Behold! Its fruits were like the jars of Hajr (i.e. a place near Madeenah) and its leaves were as big as the ears of elephants. Jibreel said, ‘This is the farthest Lote Tree.’ Behold! There ran four rivers; two were hidden and two were visible. I asked, ‘What are these two kinds of rivers, O Jibreel?’ He replied, ‘As for the hidden rivers, they are two rivers in Paradise and the visible rivers are the Nile and the Euphrates.’ Then Al-Baitul-Ma’moor (i.e. the Sacred House) was shown to me and a container full of wine and another full of milk and a third full of honey were brought to me. I took the milk. Jibreel remarked, ‘This is the Islamic religion which you and your followers are following.’ Then the prayers were enjoined on me: They were fifty prayers a day.

When I returned, I passed by Moosa who asked (me), ‘What have you been ordered to do?’ I replied, ‘I have been ordered to offer fifty prayers a day.’ Moosa said, ‘Your followers cannot bear fifty prayers a day, and by Allaah, I have tested people before you, and I have tried my level best with Bani Israel (in vain). Go back to your Lord and ask for reduction to lessen your followers’ burden.’

So I went back, and Allah reduced ten prayers for me. Then again I came to Moosa, but he repeated the same as he had said before. Then again I went back to Allaah and He reduced ten more prayers. When I came back to Moosa and he said the same, I went back to Allaah and He ordered me to observe ten prayers a day. When I came back to Moosa, he repeated the same advice, so I went back to Allaah and was ordered to observe five prayers a day. When I came back to Moosa, he said, ‘What have you been ordered?’ I replied, ‘I have been ordered to observe five prayers a day.’ He said, ‘Your followers cannot bear five prayers a day, and no doubt, I have experienced people before you, and I have tried my level best with Bani Israel, so go back to your Lord and ask for reduction to lessen your followers’ burden.’

I said, ‘I have requested so much of my Lord that I feel ashamed, but I am satisfied now and surrender to Allaah’s Order.’ When I left, I heard a voice saying, ‘I have passed My Order and have lessened the burden of My worshipers.'”

For more details please read the books of Seerah (biography of the Prophet Muhammad SAW and the explanation of Chapter Al-Israa’ (Chapter 17) in the books of Tafseer (Quranic exegesis).

Allah Knows best.


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Impact of Zakat on the Muslim

There is no doubt that Zakat (obligatory charity) has a great impact on both the person who pays it, and on the society as a whole. Among its impacts are the following:

It purifies the person who gives it from sins and acts of disobedience he committed; Allah Says (what means): {Take, [O Muhammad sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) ], from their wealth a charity by which you purify them and cause them increase.}[Quran 9:103]. Moreover, it is confirmed that the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) said: “Charity wipes out the sin exactly as water extinguishes the fire.” [At-Tirmithi]

It results in the increase and blesses of the money; linguistically, Zakat means to bless, increase, or purify. Allah Says (what means): {But whatever thing you spend [in His cause] – He will compensate it; and He is the best of providers.}[Quran 34:39]. Besides, it is confirmed that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) said: “I swear by Allah on the following three things: ….(and he mentioned) charity does not decrease the wealth of the person who gives it.” [At-Tirmithi]

It fulfills the need of the needy; this leads to the spread of security in the society, as theft and robbery will decrease. It also means harmony in the society.

The above are some fruits yielded by the payment of Zakat, and whoever wants to find out more in this regard may refer to the books of the scholars may Allah have mercy upon them on this subject.

Allah Knows best.


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Zakat of Agricultural Products

Source: https://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/PrintFatwa.php?lang=E&Id=29066&lang=E&Id=29066

Question
I own two acres of land, one of which is my property and the other is rented out. What is the due zakat on each of them, given that I am growing banana trees and that costs a lot of money to cultivate?

Answer
All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammad, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, is His slave and messenger.

Scholars have differed with regards to the due zakat on agricultural products. Imam Abu Hanifah, may Allah have mercy upon him, believed that zakat is obligatory on agricultural products, regardless of their amount. He believed that zakat should be paid on everything that comes out of the earth like grains; all crops and fruits; such as bananas, pomegranates, peaches and even vegetables, legume and flowers. He depended on the narration of Ibn ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with them, who reported that the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said: “On that which is watered by the heavens (i.e. rain), springs or its own roots, a tenth of the harvest is due and for what is watered by irrigation, half a tenth (i.e. twentieth) of the harvest.” [Al-Bukhari and others]

The other three Imams, may Allah have mercy upon them, believed that zakat is obligatory on edible agricultural products that can be measured by capacity (i.e. Saa‘: a measure that equals four double-handfuls of an average person’s hands) such as rice, wheat, dates and raisins. They relied on what the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said: “No zakat is payable in less than five Wasqs (i.e. equals sixty Saa‘) of dates.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

The same narration was reported as follows: “No zakat is payable in less than five Wasqs of dates or grain.” [Muslim and Ahmad]

This indicates that zakat is only due on edible agricultural products, provided the resulting crop is used as regular food which can be stored and planted, as stated above. As for vegetables, fresh fruits and legumes, they are not measured or stored, so no zakat is due on them.

The predominant opinion in this regard is that zakat is not obligatory on fruits and vegetables since vegetables were plentiful in Al-Madinah and fruits were abundant in the Arab markets in Taa’if. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, were never reported to have taken zakat on any of these crops.

Hence, there is no zakat on the bananas grown in this land. However, if the money that is earned from selling agricultural products reaches the due Nisab of zakat, whether by itself or when added to other money or trade goods, and the Hawl (i.e. lunar year) has passed, then zakat becomes due on that money.

Allah Knows best.


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Whether a Partner in Business Partnership is Entitled to Salary?

Source: https://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/PrintFatwa.php?lang=E&Id=335446

Question:
Assalaamu alaykum.
‘A’ brought a business concept and requested me to invest. Me and two friends agreed to invest. ‘A’ agreed to manage the business. ‘B’ is a finance professional and agreed to look after the finance management. ‘C’ is a marketing professional and agreed to support marketing.

  1. Who is the owner of the business?; only ‘A’, or all partners? Is ‘A’ allowed to take a monthly amount as salary;
  2. How do we consider the role of ‘B’ and ‘C’? Are they entitled to any payment?;
  3. How should their role be considered while sharing the profit?

I kindly accept your feedback. May Allah bless you.

Answer:
All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, is His slave and Messenger

Your question included several points, and we will answer them in the order in which you mentioned them:

The first question: Who is the owner of the business? Is it person (A) alone, or all partners? The answer is: the business is a joint venture (partnership) between the three if (A) will invest the money of (B) and (C) and will work with the money against a percentage from the profit that will be agreed upon in the contract. He does not have a salary. The partnership, in this case, will be called Mudhaarabah [as underlined in fatawa 5160 and 276166]: (A) with his effort and the two others, (B) and (C), with their money and their work.

However, if (A) will be given a specific salary for his effort and his investment of the money, then he is a hired person (employee) and not a partner; the business, in this case, is between (B) and (C), who are partners with their money and their work.

The second question: Is it permissible for the person (A) to take a sum of money each month as a monthly salary? The answer to this is that if (A) is a partner, then it is not valid that he will be given a specific salary; rather, he takes a percentage from the profit only, if there is any profit, in return for his work.

Ibn al-Munthir said, “All the scholars that we know of unanimously agreed upon the invalidity of profit-sharing if one or both parties stipulate a designated number of dirhams for themselves.”

However, if he only works and has nothing to do with the partnership, then he is given a known salary.

The third question: How do we consider the role of (B) and (C)? Are they entitled to any payment? How should their role be considered while sharing the profit? The answer is that (B) and (C) are partners in the business and the profit of each of them is according to what was agreed upon (between them) in the contract. If the company is a Mudhaarabah, in a way that (A) will work with them as a partner against a percentage from the profit, then the profit is divided between the three according to what was agreed upon in the contract. Since both (B) and (C) are participating with capital and they both work as well, then each of them is entitled to ask for a salary in return for his work or request an increase in their share from the profit. The author of Ar-Rawdh (a Hanbali book) wrote, “Or that one of them works with his money and he gets a profit more than the profit of.…his money [i.e. the profit he is entitled to according to his share from his money]”.

If the third (A) works as an employee with a salary, then the partnership is between (B) and (C) only and the profit is divided between them according to what they agree upon. If one of them works more than the other, then he may request an additional share from the profit in return for that. In any case, what should be taken into account depends on what they agree upon.

Al-Khiraqi said in his Mukhtasar, “If two persons have a partnership in their effort and the capital of one of them, or two persons in their effort and the money of others, or one person in his effort and the capital of another, or the capital of both of them and the effort of one of them, or the capital and effort of both of them – whether the capital is contributed equally or not – then all of this is permissible, and the profit is divided according to what is agreed upon between them.”

Allah knows best.


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Seeks Advice for Opening a New Business.

Source: https://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/PrintFatwa.php?lang=E&Id=84907

Question:
I am opening a new shop for electronics goods and I am new to this business. I want to know what are the things I need to do apart from being honest and not cheating so that Allah may bless my business with prosperity and let it flourish. What are the Dua’s or supplications or prayers I need to perform every day in the light of the Qur’an and Sunnah? What should I do when I first open the shop, i.e. are there any supplications or Salat I need to perform every day and what should I do when I close my shop?

Please answer me in the light of the Qur’an and Sunnah and reply soon as my shop is starting this week. I am afraid as whatever I did I did not succeed and this time lots of hard-earned money of my father is being invested. As my father is growing old, day-by-day his strength is diminishing and I need to do something so that my father gets a rest. If I do not succeed my father will have to continue working. Please help me for the sake of Allah and pray to Allah so that my business flourishes and I can give my father the much-required rest.

Answer:
Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the World; and may His blessings and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon all his Family and Companions.

Dear inquirer!

We ask Allah, The Exalted, to grant you success Here and Hereafter, to shower you with His blessings and to bless your family and wealth. Know that success is based on the following:

1) Pay Zakat if your business meets the minimum requirements. Make sure to calculate your zakat (by referring to your assets) annually so that you know you need to pay zakat or not. Otherwise, performing charitable activities is recommended.

2) Seeking Allah’s help and supplicating Him since He is The Most Generous. It is proved in the Hadith recorded by al-Tirmizi and Abu Dawood and others that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) said: “Allah is Modest and Generous, so He does not turn down one’s raised hands (supplicating Him) with failure”.

3) Persevere in truth and sincerity and search for what is Halal, for the Prophetic Hadith: “The seller and the buyer have the right to keep or return goods as long as they have not parted or till they part; and if both the parties spoke the truth and described the defects and qualities of the goods, then they would be blessed in their transaction, and if they told lies or hid something, then the blessings of their transaction would be lost” [Reported by Imam Bukhari ].

4) Seeking the help of experts in the field that you are considering so that they can help you choose successful projects and their best useful means. In this concern, it is proved in the Sunnah that Umm Salamah (Radiya Allahu Anha) said: “Allah’s Messenger (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) used to say after performing the dawn prayer: ‘O Allah! I ask you for useful knowledge, abundant livelihood and acceptable actions” [Ahmad in al-Musnad].

As for bringing down Allah’s blessings, it is proved in the Sunnah as recorded in al-Musnad from Ali (Radiya Allahu Anhu) that Allah’s Messenger (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) said: “O Allah! Bless the mornings of my Ummah (people)”.

When you enter a marketing place, you are advised to pray with Allah’s Messenger’s Hadith: “Whoever enters a market place and says: ‘There is no God but Allah, He has not a partner, to Him belongs the authority, His is all Praise, He grants life and causes death, He is The Living One, He does not die, good is in His Hand and He has power over all things; Allah will write down one million good deeds for him (in his account with Him) and cancel one million bad deeds and promote his rank one million degrees more”. Another Hadith reads: “Whoever desires to be pleased with abundance in his provision or that his age be lengthed, should show favor to his blood relatives” [Reported by Imam Bukhari ].

The above-mentioned Hadith states that having good relations with relatives and treating them well brings about more livelihood.

Allah knows best.


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