Arrogance and Tyranny Will Not Remain Unpunished

Lessons learned from Pharaoh’s body

The Quran is a book of guidance. It is a road map to success and eternal happiness, a gift from the Creator to the creation. It is a book full of signs; God calls them evidence, proofs, and lessons. They prove the existence of God and warn humankind of a Day of Judgement, when each one of us will stand before God weighed down, or held high, by our deeds.

One of the most manifest signs is the story of Moses. It is a story that holds many lessons for humankind. One part of the story, in particular, has intrigued people for centuries – the parting of the Red Sea and the drowning of the Egyptians. All three major monotheistic religions, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam tell relatively the same Moses story, however, the Quran is able to fill in details and correct misinterpretations. While all versions include the parting of the Red Sea and the drowning of Pharaoh, the Quran tells us that Pharaoh’s body will be preserved for all time, as a sign.

Which means: “So this day We shall deliver your (dead) body (out from the sea) that you may be a sign to those who come after you! And verily, many among mankind are heedless of Our signs.” [Al-Quran surah Yunus, verse 92]

When Pharaoh had power, wealth, good health and strength he refused to acknowledge God. He denied the signs and condemned himself. At the last minute, as the waves crashed over him and his heart constricted in fear, Pharaoh acknowledged God. Pharaoh’s arrogance fell away, but alas it was too late, he saw death approaching and cried out to God with fear and horror. Renowned Islamic scholar Ibn Kathir describes Pharaoh’s death.

“The curtain fell on Pharaoh’s tyranny, and the waves threw his corpse up to the western seashore. The Egyptians saw him and knew that the god whom they worshipped and obeyed was a mere man who could not keep death away from his own neck.”

God calls it a sign for those “who come after”

Many of the Pharaoh’s of Egypt behaved as if they were gods. If a Pharaoh reigned for thirty years there was a ceremony called a Sed-festival where the king was officially turned into a god. Many Pharaoh’s especially those who reigned during what is known as the Second Kingdom built numerous monuments and statues to themselves. Some, particularly Amenhotep III and Ramses II wanted to leave a mark, a reminder of their great strength, wealth and divinity.

(God said to Moses) (Which means): “Go to Pharaoh; verily he has transgressed all bounds (he is arrogant and too proud and has refused to believe in God). And say to him: “Would you purify yourself (from the sin of disbelief by becoming a believer)?” [Al-Quran, surah An-Nazi’at, verse 17 – 18]

Then he (Pharaoh) gathered his people and cried aloud, “I am your lord, most high. “So God seized him with punishment for his last and first transgression. Verily, in this is an instructive admonition for whosoever fears Allah. [Al-Quran, surah An-Nazi’at, verse 24 – 25]

Pharaoh said: “O chiefs! I know not that you have a god other than me. So kindle for me (a fire), O Haman, to bake (bricks out of) clay, and set up for me a lofty tower in order that I may look at (or look for) the God of Moses…” [Al-Quran, surah al-Qasas, verse 38]

The Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt were known for their excesses, their beliefs in multiple gods and at times their cruelty and oppression of slaves, and ordinary citizens. When a human being believes himself to be a god, he is arrogant and tyrannical, yet as in this case of the Pharaoh of Moses (whoever he may, or may not have been) who was at the height of his arrogance, God was still willing to forgive him. He sent sign after sign and proof after proof of His existence, but Pharaoh chose to live as if there was no tomorrow. Pharaoh chose to reject the offer of forgiveness and for him and those like him, there is always a tomorrow and inevitably a judgment.

Go you and your brother with My signs and do not, you both, slacken and become weak in My Remembrance. Go, both of you, to Pharaoh, verily he has transgressed (all bounds in disbelief and disobedience and behaved as an arrogant and as a tyrant). And speak to him mildly, perhaps he may accept admonition or fear (God).” [Quran, Surah Taha, verse 43 – 44]

The signs sent by God to Pharaoh were meant to be a reminder, but he rejected those signs out of his arrogance and became one of the losers.

We are able to look at the preserved body of a Pharaoh, any pharaoh, and be reminded of God’s words. We can also look at the behavior of people today, who behave as if they were 21st-century pharaohs and remember how God punished the pharaohs of the past. The end result of Pharaoh is a reminder for all of humankind.

It reminds us that those who knowingly choose not to worship God in the manner He rightly deserves, risk never being guided to the right path. How many signs will God send? One, one million? Is it worth giving up eternal bliss for moments of happiness based on arrogance and ego? In the Hall of Mummies, in the Cairo Museum lie a group of men and women who just may have discovered the answer.

Taken with slight changes from

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Honoring The Companions.

Let us altogether internalize upon the noble akhlaaq of the Companions of Rasulullah in terms of their obedience and adherence in upholding the symbols (shi’aar) of Islam. Verily, the Companions had undertaken great sacrifices and performed the best of deeds in aiding Rasulullah to uphold the religion of Allah….

Let us altogether internalize upon the noble akhlaaq of the Companions of Rasulullah in terms of their obedience and adherence in upholding the symbols (shi’aar) of Islam. Verily, the Companions had undertaken great sacrifices and performed the best of deeds in aiding Rasulullah to uphold the religion of Allah.

Indeed, what is deemed as the Companions of Rasulullah are those that lived during his time, having met or seen him, heard his voice, knew Rasulullah, had a belief (imaan), strove and fought along with Rasulullah even for a brief moment. The Companions of Rasulullah were the best and utmost generation for they were blessed with the opportunity to attain knowledge directly, immersed in da’wah work, and undertake jihaad alongside Rasulullah.

The Companions of Rasulullah had proven and manifested how they truly loved, cared, and always gave priority upon every instruction or request from Rasulullah, for the sake of Islam. Hence, the Companions were always prepared to perform any command that would come from Rasulullah in safeguarding the interest of Islam. These noble traits were praised by Allah such that the Companions were guaranteed as the dwellers of Paradise. Allah mentions in verse 100 of Surah at-Tawbah (meaning):

“And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajireen and the Ansaar and those who followed them with good conduct – Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great attainment.” [Al-Quran, Surah at-Tawbah, verse 100].

Four of the Companions of Rasulullah that can be emulated by the Muslim ummah are:

  1. Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq who said: “If I am on the correct path, then aid me. But if I am deviating, then advise me!”
  2. ‘Umar al-Khattaab who said: “The Holy Book al-Qur’an is my guide and I will tread the path undertaken by Rasulullah and Abu Bakr.”
  3. Aside from that, ‘Uthmaan bin ‘Affaan also stated: “In the Hereafter, there will be severe torment for those that transgressed against Allah and forgiveness as well as pleasure from Allah for those that truly obey the commands of Allah.”
  4. And finally ‘Ali who stated: “A true Muslim is one who utilizes his tongue and limbs to uphold the truth.”

Therefore, it behooves us as the Muslim Ummah to emulate the struggle, sacrifice, da’wah, and jihaad that was pioneered by the Companions in preserving the symbols of Islam.

Verily, we were taught to not curse or vilify the Companions of Rasulullah for they were truly noble and sincere in performing all of their deeds. Hence, let us not even once insult the Companions of Rasulullah in any way. In the hadith of Abu Sa’id al-Khudri, he mentioned that Rasulullah said:

“Do not abuse my Companions, for by the One in Whose Hand is my soul! If one of you were to spend gold the like of Uhud, it would not equal a mudd – nor half of it – of one of them.” [Narrated by al-Bukhaari]

Loving the Companions of Rasulullah is a sign of faith in Allah. On the flip side, to insult, revile, and declare kufr (disbelief) upon the Companions of Rasulullah is strictly prohibited for it can nullify one’s imaan.

Moreover, it goes against the hadith of Rasulullah that was narrated on the authority of al-Baraa’ bin ‘Aazib:

“None loves the Ansaar but a believer, and none hates them but a hypocrite. So Allah will love him who loves them, and He will hate him who hates them.” [Narrated by al-Bukhaari and Muslim].

Lessons from the Battle of Hunain

The Battle of Hunain occurred between the Muslims led by Prophet Muhammad and the Bani Hawazin led by Malik bin Auf in the eight years of Hijrah (Migration). This battle was caused by the Bani Hawazin, who wanted to destroy the Muslims after they managed to take control of Mecca….

Let us all remind ourselves about a battle that occurred in the blessed month of Ramadhan, the Battle of Hunain. This battle was directly mentioned by Allah the Almighty in the Quran in Chapter 9 (Surah al-Taubah), verse (ayat) 25:

Which means: “Allah has surely blessed you with His help on many battlefields, and on the day of Hunain, when you were proud of your great number, then it did not help you at all, and the earth was straightened for you despite all its vastness, then you turned back on your heels.” [Al-Quran, Surah al-Taubah, verse 25].

The Battle of Hunain occurred between the Muslims led by Prophet Muhammad and the Bani Hawazin led by Malik bin Auf in the eight years of Hijrah (Migration). This battle was caused by the Bani Hawazin, who wanted to destroy the Muslims after they managed to take control of Mecca. This is the nature of the enemies of Islam, always striving to weaken the Muslims. They will not allow Muslims to build their own strength, be it in terms of politics, economics or knowledge. Truly Allah says in the Quran in Chapter 2 (Surah al-Baqarah), verse (ayat) 120:

Which means: “The Jews will never be pleased with you, nor will the Christians, unless you follow their faith…” [Al-Quran, Surah al-Baqarah, verse 120].

Allah the Almighty reminds Muslims that any success can only be achieved with the help of Allah. We will not gain victory and success without the help of Allah. Therefore, we should always seek the help of Allah through righteous practices such as performing prayers, the remembrance of Allah (zikrullah), avoiding actions that He has prohibited/immoralities and purifying our hearts. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said in a Hadith narrated by Imam al-Tirmizi:

Which means: “When you ask, ask of Allah, and if you ask for help, seek help from Allah.” [Narrated by al-Tirmizi].

Islam was able to grow strong because the Prophet and his companions were known to be worshippers of Allah in the nighttime and soldiers for the cause of Allah in the daytime. Their noble character granted them the aid of Allah the Almighty. Muslims are stronger when they are close to Allah and grow weak when they distance themselves from Allah. Allah the Almighty says in the Quran in Chapter 9 (Surah al-Taubah), verse (ayat) 25:

Which means: “Allah has surely blessed you with His help on many battlefields…”  [Al-Quran, Surah al-Taubah, verse 25].

In the battle of Hunain, Allah taught the believers to always be honorable. For the first time, they were able to go into battle with 12,000 men, a number that was huge compared to their previous battles. Some of the companions began to feel proud of their numbers and forgot that all their previous battles were won with the aid of Allah the Almighty. Thus, they were given a test in the form of a sudden attack. The earth felt so restricted that they ran away. The pride they felt towards their military strength caused Allah the Almighty to withdraw his help (for a while) as a lesson.

It was that small moment of pride that had invited the wrath of Allah. Nowadays, as Muslims continue to neglect their worship of Allah, commit immoralities, backbite and let their envy consume them, how do we expect Allah the Almighty to send help our way? However, the battle of Hunnain ultimately ended in a decisive victory for the Muslims, who captured enormous spoils

Therefore, let us all unite in order for us to increase in strength as a people and achieve victory without the help of the enemies of Islam. Allah the Almighty will help us as long as we help His religion. Allah the Almighty says in the Quran in Chapter 47 (Surah Muhammad), verse (ayat) 7:

Which means: “O you who believe, if you will help (the religion prescribed by) Allah, He will help you, and will stabilize your footings.” [Al-Quran, Surah Muhammad, verse 7].

Location and Nature of Arab Tribes (Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum).

Beyond a shadow of the doubt, the biography of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) manifestly represents an exhaustive embodiment of the sublime Divine Message that he communicated in order to deliver the human race from the swamp of darkness and polytheism to the paradise of light and monotheism. An image, authentic as well as comprehensive, of this Message, is therefore only attainable through careful study and profound analysis of both backgrounds and issues of such a biography…..

Beyond a shadow of the doubt, the biography of Prophet Muhammad manifestly represents an exhaustive embodiment of the sublime Divine Message that he communicated in order to deliver the human race from the swamp of darkness and polytheism to the paradise of light and monotheism. An image, authentic as well as comprehensive, of this Message, is therefore only attainable through careful study and profound analysis of both backgrounds and issues of such a biography. In view of this, a whole chapter is here introduced about the nature and development of Arab tribes prior to Islam as well as the circumstantial environment that enwrapped the Prophet’s mission.

Location Of The Arabs:
Linguistically, the word “Arab” means deserts and waste barren land well-nigh waterless and treeless. Ever since the dawn of history, the Arabian Peninsula and its people have been called as such.

The Arabian Peninsula is enclosed in the west by the Red Sea and Sinai, in the east by the Arabian Gulf, in the south by the Arabian Sea, which is an extension of the Indian Ocean, and in the north by old Syria and part of Iraq. The area is estimated between a million and a million and a quarter square miles.

Thanks to its geographical position, the peninsula has always maintained great importance. Considering its internal setting, it is mostly deserts and sandy places, which has rendered it inaccessible to foreigners and invaders, and allowed its people complete liberty and independence through the ages, despite the presence of two neighboring great empires.

It’s an external setting, on the other hand, caused it to be the center of the old world and provided it with sea and land links with most nations at the time. Thanks to this strategic position the Arabian Peninsula had become the center for trade, culture, religion, and art.

Arab Tribes:
Arab kinfolks have been divided according to lineage into three groups:

  1. Perishing Arabs: The ancient Arabs, of whose history little is known, and of whom were ‘Ad, Thamûd, Tasam, Jadis, Emlaq, and others.
  2. Pure Arabs: Who originated from the progeny of Ya‘rub bin Yashjub bin Qahtan. They were also called Qahtanian Arabs.
  3. Arabized Arabs: Who originated from the progeny of Ishmael. They were also called ‘Adnanian Arabs.

The pure Arabs – the people of Qahtan – originally lived in Yemen and comprised many tribes, two of which were very famous:

  1. Himyar: The most famous of whose septs were Zaid Al-Jamhur, Quda‘a, and Sakasic.
  2. Kahlan: The most famous of whose septs were Hamdan, Anmar, Tai’, Mudhhij, Kinda, Lakhm, Judham, Azd, Aws, Khazraj and the descendants of Jafna — the kings of old Syria.

Kahlan septs emigrated from Yemen to dwell in the different parts of the Arabian Peninsula prior to the Great Flood (Sail Al-‘Arim of Ma’rib Dam), due to the failure of trade under the Roman pressure and domain on both sea and land trade routes following the Roman occupation of Egypt and Syria. Naturally enough, the competition between Kahlan and Himyar led to the evacuation of the first and the settlement of the second in Yemen.

The Emigrating Septs of Kahlan Can be Into Four Groups:

  1. Azd: Who, under the leadership of ‘Imran bin ‘Amr Muzaiqbâ’, wandered in Yemen, sent pioneers and finally headed northwards. Details of their emigration can be summed up as follows:
  2. Tha‘labah bin ‘Amr left his tribe Al-Azd for Hijaz and dwelt between Tha‘labiyah and Dhi Qar. When he gained strength, he headed for Madinah where he stayed. Of his seed are Aws and Khazraj, sons of Haritha bin Tha‘labah. Haritha bin ‘Amr, known as Khuza‘a, wandered with his folks in Hijaz until they came to Mar Az-Zahran. Later, they conquered the Haram and settled in Makkah after having driven away its people, the tribe of Jurhum. ‘Imran bin ‘Amr and his folks went to ‘Oman where they established the tribe of Azd whose children inhabited Tihama and were known as Azd-of-Shanu’a. Jafna bin ‘Amr and his family, headed for Syria where he settled and initiated the kingdom of Ghassan who was so named after a spring of water, in Hijaz, where they stopped on their way to Syria.
  3. Lakhm and Judham: Of whom was Nasr bin Rabi‘a, father of Manadhira, Kings of Heerah.
  4. Banu Tai’: Who also emigrated northwards to settle by the so-called Aja and Salma Mountains which were consequently named as Tai’ Mountains.
  5. Kinda: Who dwelt in Bahrain but were expelled to Hadramout and Najd where they instituted a powerful government but not for long, for the whole tribe soon faded away.

Another tribe of Himyar, known as Quda‘a, also left Yemen and dwelt in Samawa semidesert on the borders of Iraq.

The Arabized Arabs go back in ancestry to their great grandfather Abraham from a town called “Ar” near Kufa on the west bank of the Euphrates in Iraq. Excavations brought to light great details of the town, Abraham’s family, and the prevalent religions and social circumstances.

It is known that Abraham left Ar for Harran and then for Palestine, which he made headquarters for his Message. He wandered all over the area. When he went to Egypt, the Pharaoh tried to do evil to his wife Sarah, but Allâh saved her and the Pharaoh’s wicked scheme recoiled on him. He thus came to realize her strong attachment to Allâh, and, in acknowledgment of her grace, the Pharaoh rendered his daughter Hagar (Hajar) at Sarah’s service, but Sarah gave Hagar to Abraham as a wife.

Abraham returned to Palestine where Hagar gave birth to Ishmael. Sarah became so jealous of Hagar that she forced Abraham to send Hagar and her baby away to a plantless valley on a small hill in Hijaz, by the Sacred House, exposed to the wearing of floods coming right and left. He chose for them a place under a lofty tree above Zamzam near the upper side of the Mosque in Makkah where neither people nor water was available and went back to Palestine leaving with his wife and baby a leather case with some dates and a pot of water. Not before long, they ran out of both food and water, but thanks to Allâh’s favor water gushed forth to sustain them for some time. The whole story of Zamzam spring is already known to everybody.

Another Yemeni tribe – Jurhum the Second – came and lived in Makkah upon Hagar’s permission, after being said to have lived in the valleys around Makkah. It is mentioned in the Sahih Al-Bukhari that this tribe came to Makkah before Ishmael was a young man while they had passed through that valley long before this event.

Abraham used to go to Makkah every now and then to see his wife and son. The number of these journeys is still unknown, but authentic historical resources spoke of four ones. Allâh, the Sublime, stated in the Noble Qur’ân that He had Abraham see, in his dream, that he slaughtered his son Ishmael, and therefore Abraham stood up to fulfill His Order:

“Then, when they had both submitted themselves (to the Will of Allâh), and he had laid him prostrate on his forehead (or on the side of his forehead for slaughtering); and We called out to him: “O Abraham! You have fulfilled the dream (vision)!” Verily! Thus do we reward the Muhsinûn (good-doers, who perform good deeds totally for Allâh’s sake only, without any show off or to gain praise or fame, etc. and do them in accordance to Allâh’s Orders). Verily, that indeed was a manifest trial — and We ransomed him with a great sacrifice (i.e. a ram)” [37:103-107]

It is mentioned in the Genesis that Ishmael was thirteen years older than his brother Ishaq. The sequence of the story of the sacrifice of Ishmael shows that it really happened before Ishaq’s birth and that Allâh’s Promise to give Abraham another son, Ishaq, came after narration of the whole story.

This story spoke of one journey – at least – before Ishmael became a young man. Al-Bukhari, on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas, reported the other three journeys; a summary of which goes as follows: When Ishmael became a young man, he learned Arabic at the hand of the tribe of Jurhum, who loved him with great admiration and gave him one of their women as a wife, soon after his mother died. Having wanted to see his wife and son again, Abraham came to Makkah, Ishmael’s marriage, but he didn’t find him at home. He asked Ishmael’s wife about her husband and how they were doing. She complained of poverty, so he asked her to tell Ishmael to change his doorstep. Ishmael understood the message, divorced his wife and got married to the daughter of Mudad bin ‘Amr, chief of the tribe of Jurhum.

Once more, Abraham came to see his son but again didn’t find him at home. He asked his new wife the same previous question, to which she thanked Allâh. Abraham asked her to tell Ishmael to keep his doorstep (i.e. to keep her as wife) and went back to Palestine.

A third time, Abraham came to Makkah to find Ishmael sharpening an arrow under a lofty tree near Zamzam. The meeting, after a very long journey of separation, was very touching for a father so affectionate and a so dutiful and righteous son. This time, father and son built Al-Ka‘bah and raised its pillars, and Abraham, in compliance with Allâh’s Commandment, called unto people to make a pilgrimage to it.

By the grace of Allâh, Ishmael had twelve sons from the daughter of Mudad, whose names were Nabet, Qidar, Edbael, Mebsham, Mishma’, Duma, Micha, Hudud, Yetma, Yetour, Nafis and Qidman, and who ultimately formed twelve tribes inhabiting Makkah and trading between Yemen, geographical Syria and Egypt. Later on, these tribes spread all over, and even outside, the peninsula. All their tidings went into oblivion except for the descendants of Nabet and Qidar.

The Nabeteans – sons of Nabet – established a flourishing civilization in the north of Hijaz, they instituted a powerful government which spread out its domain over all neighboring tribes and made Petra their capital. Nobody dared challenge their authority until the Romans came and managed to eliminate their kingdom. After extensive research and painstaking investigation, Mr. Sulaiman An-Nadwi came to the conclusion that the Ghassanide kings, along with the Aws and Khazraj were not likely to be Qahtanians but rather Nabeteans.

Descendants of Qidar, the son of Ishmael, lived long in Makkah increasing in number, of them issued ‘Adnan and son Ma‘ad, to whom ‘Adnanian Arabs traced back their ancestry. ‘Adnan is the twenty-first grandfather in the series of the Prophetic ancestry. It was said that whenever Prophet Muhammad spoke of his ancestry he would stop at ‘Adnan and say: “Genealogists tell lies” and did not go farther than him. A group of scholars, however, favored the probability of going beyond ‘Adnan attaching no significance to the aforementioned Prophetic Hadith. They went on to say that there were exactly forty fathers between ‘Adnan and Abraham.

Nizar, Ma‘ad’s only son, had four sons who branched out into four great tribes; Eyad, Anmar, Rabi‘a, and Mudar. These last two sub-branched into several septs. Rabi‘a fathered Asad, ‘Anazah, ‘Abdul Qais, and Wa’il’s two sons (Bakr and Taghlib), Hanifa and many others.

Mudar tribes branched out into two great divisions: Qais ‘Ailan bin Mudar and septs of Elias bin Mudar. Of Qais ‘Ailan were the Banu Saleem, Banu Hawazin, and Banu Ghatafan of whom descended ‘Abs, Zubyan, Ashja‘ and Ghani bin A‘sur. Of Elias bin Mudar were Tamim bin Murra, Hudhail bin Mudrika, Banu Asad bin Khuzaimah and septs of Kinana bin Khuzaimah, of whom came Quraish, the descendants of Fahr bin Malik bin An-Nadr bin Kinana.

Quraish branched out into various tribes, the most famous of whom were Jumah, Sahm, ‘Adi, Makhzum, Tayim, Zahra and the three septs of Qusai bin Kilab: ‘Abdud-Dar bin Qusai, Asad bin ‘Abdul ‘Uzza bin Qusai and ‘Abd Manaf bin Qusai.

‘Abd Manaf branched out into four tribes: ‘Abd Shams, Nawfal, Muttalib and Hashim. It is, however, from the family of Hashim that Allâh selected Prophet Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib bin Hashim.

Prophet Muhammad said:

“Allâh selected Ishmael from the sons of Abraham, Kinana from the sons of Ishmael, Quraish from the sons of Kinana, Hashim from the sons of Quraish and He selected me from the sons of Hashim.”

Al-‘Abbas bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib quoted the Messenger of Allâh as saying:

“Allâh created mankind and chose me from the best whereof, He chose the tribes and selected me from the best whereof; and He chose families and selected me from the best whereof. I am the very best in person and family.”

Having increased in number, children of ‘Adnan, in pursuit of pastures and water, spread out over various parts of Arabia.

The tribe of ‘Abdul Qais, together with some septs of Bakr bin Wa’il and Tamim, emigrated to Bahrain where they dwelt.

Banu Hanifa bin Sa‘b bin Ali bin Bakr went to settle in Hijr, the capital of Yamama. All the tribes of Bakr bin Wa’il lived in an area of land which included Yamama, Bahrain, Saif Kazima, the seashore, the outer borders of Iraq, Ablah and Hait.

Most of the tribe of Taghlib lived in the Euphrates area while some of them lived with Bakr. Banu Tamim lived in Basra semi-desert.

Banu Saleem lived in the vicinity of Madinah on the land stretching from Wadi Al-Qura to Khaibar onwards to the eastern mountains to Harrah.

Thaqif dwelt in Ta’if and Hawazin east of Makkah near Autas on the road from Makkah to Basra. Banu Asad lived on the land east of Taimâ’ and west of Kufa, while the family of Tai’ lived between Banu Asad and Taimâ’. They were five-day-walk far from Kufa.

Zubyan inhabited the plot of and between Taimâ’ and Hawran.

Some septs of Kinana lived in Tihama, while septs of Quraish dwelt in Makkah and its suburbs. Quraish remained completely disunited until Qusai bin Kilab managed to rally their ranks on honorable terms attaching major prominence to their status and importance.

Sources: Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum.

The Honor and Glory of Palestine

Muslims have revered Jerusalem since the time of Prophet Adam who according to Islamic tradition, built the original Aqsa Mosque there…..

Muslims were shocked when the President of the United States declared that Jerusalem was the capital of Israel. Jerusalem is a Holy City which has been contested by the three monotheistic religions, namely: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Muslims have revered Jerusalem since the time of Prophet Adam who according to Islamic tradition, built the original Aqsa Mosque there. A Hadith which was narrated by Imam al-Bukhari reported that Abu Zar (one of Prophet Muhammad’s companions) once asked the Prophet:

Which means: Which mosque was the first built on Earth? He replied, “Masjid al-Haram (in Mecca)”. I asked him which mosque was built next. He replied “the Aqsa Mosque”, I then asked him how long afterwards was it built? The Prophet replied “40 years”.

According to the Quran Jerusalem is the property of Muslims as mentioned by Allah the Almighty in Chapter 5 (Surah al-Maidah), verse (ayat) 21:

Which means: “O my people! Enter the holy land which Allah hath assigned unto you, and turn not back ignominiously, for then will ye be overthrown, to your own ruin.”

The Isra ‘and mikraj event (the Prophet’s night journey to Jerusalem and Heaven) proved that Jerusalem belongs to the Muslims as mentioned in the Quran in Chapter 17 (Surah al-Israk), verse (ayat) 1:

Which means: “Glory to (Allah) Who did take His servant for a Journey by night from the Sacred Mosque to the farthest Mosque, whose precincts We did bless,- in order that We might show him some of Our Signs: for He is the One Who heareth and seeth (all things).”

Caliph Umar al-Khattab was able to reopen Jerusalem during his reign. Then Sultan Salahuddin al-Ayubi freed Jerusalem from the Crusaders.

Prophet Muhammad reminded Muslims to be concerned about the glory of Islam and its symbols including glorifying the Aqsa Mosque as mentioned in his Hadith which was narrated by Imam Muslim:

Which means: “Do not be intent on traveling except to three mosques, my mosque (Masjid Nabawi in Medina), Masjidil Haram (in Mecca) and Masjid Aqsa (in Jerusalem).”

Let’s be conscientious about the status of the Aqsa Mosque as the first Muslim qiblah (direction to pray) and show concern for our brothers and sisters in Palestine by praying for the freedom of Jerusalem. Hopefully, it will be fully controlled by Muslims for the benefit of all. The Messenger of Allah said in a Hadith which was narrated by Imam al-Bukhari:

Which means: “Whoever fulfills the wishes of his brother then Allah will make it easy for him to attain his own wish.”

Allah the Almighty also mentioned in the Quran in Chapter 9 (Surah al-Taubah), verse (ayat) 40:

Which means: “If ye help not (your leader i.e. Prophet Muhammad), (it is no matter): for Allah did indeed help him, when the Unbelievers drove him out: he had no more than one companion; they two were in the cave, and he said to his companion, “Have no fear, for Allah is with us”: then Allah sent down His peace upon him, and strengthened him with forces which ye saw not, and humbled to the depths the word of the Unbelievers. But the word of Allah is exalted to the heights: for Allah is Exalted in might, Wise.”

Role of Islam in Eradicate Slavery

Usually, slavery is linked with the socioeconomic status of a region or a country. Slaves are people deprived of basic human rights and are compelled to work without any compensation against their services. Historian proved that slavery was practiced in many ancient civilized countries; like ancient China, Egypt, Greece, Persia, and India, which there are many great monuments of the old world that were built on a carcass by slaves….

Usually, slavery is linked with the socioeconomic status of a region or a country. Slaves are people deprived of basic human rights and are compelled to work without any compensation against their services. Historian proved that slavery was practiced in many ancient civilized countries; like ancient China, Egypt, Greece, Persia, and India, which there are many great monuments of the old world that were built on a carcass by slaves.

Generally, before the advent of Islam, slavery was widespread in Arabs. People were enslaved; during wars, debt defaulter or purchased from slave markets. Slaves do not have free will and were bound to execute laborious tasks day after day and during their trade journey to other counties.

History of Slavery

One can trace back the history of slavery as ancient as 5000 BC, however more appalling forms appear in fifteen to seventeenth-century particularly in Europe and America. There are many sayings clarifying the strong stance of Prophet Muhammad against slavery.

According to studies in 2017, slavery enters into human history with civilization. The man used to hunt or gather food at an individual or collective level and primitive farmers were unknown to a term “Slave”. As the world becomes more civilized and started claiming over natural and man-made resources, demand for cheap labor aroused. On a large farm or in a shop, having cheap labor is an added benefit. Getting a slave is an ideal solution for such work as it costs only food and lodging. Many archaeological sites tell the story that slaves had been used as cheap labor.

1) Egyptian Civilization
slavesThe ruins of Egyptians palaces and pyramids indicated that slaves were used in construction. The hieroglyphs written on the walls of these magnificent structures support that ancient Egyptian used slaves as personal servants, as labor during construction and as soldiers during wars. Many holy scripts like Torah, Bible, and Quran also indicate that the Prophet Joseph (Yusuf) was sold in Egypt as a slave (Al-Quran; Surah Yusuf). Later on, prophet Moses (Musa) saved Bani Israel from the slavery of Pharaoh of Egypt.

2) Greek Civilization
110418-35-ancient-history-greek-greece-slavery-immigrationGreece was a great empire of ancient times, slavery was common, and apart from usual use as the servant, labor or soldier Greeks used them as gaming animals. Historical records unveil their brutality and cruelty against slaves. They were thrown in front of soldiers for military rehearsals or hunted by wild beasts as a recreational activity. The so-called democratic city of Athens was writing its history with the blood of innocent people. Most of the slaves were kidnapped from weaker coastal nations by Greek pirates and then sold like animals.

3) Roman Empire
slave-marketThe transition of Roman society from an agricultural nation to a trading center led to the bipolar society, upper ruling class, and lower working class which was actually manipulated by a ruling class. Slaves had no rights to marry, independent lodging, or any kind of freedom of expression. The masters should be protected by slaves and master had the right to give them any kind of punishment, even the death penalty.

4) Slavery among Arabs
Before the advent of Prophet Muhammad, slavery was a common practice in Arabs. Most of the slaves were of African origins which were captured during wars, but debt defaulters and slaves from other areas were also purchased. Like all other societies and civilization Arabs were no different, slaves do not enjoy any of the basic human rights. In Arab society, slaves with war skills were valued more. In Arab society, slaves can buy their freedom. They could utilize their skills to earn money and can pay back to get their freedom, some people used to free their slaves on special occasions as an act of generosity.

arab-slave-trade-300x137Like Abu Lahab, uncle of Prophet Muhammad freed his slave Soiba when she broke the news of the birth of Prophet Muhammad to him. On another occasion, Hind, wife of Abu Sufiyan freed her slave Wahshi according to her promise. Although slaves were freed or they had earned their freedom from their masters, but they were not accepted in the society. They did not have equal rights like other citizens.

Islam vs Slavery

imagesHoly Prophet Muhammad announced his prophethood at the age of forty, his truthfulness, honesty, and affectionate nature was already established among Arabs. His message was primordially based on equality of all human beings. He led the foundations of a society that do not discriminate people on the basis of color, race, or ethnicity. He gave hope to the poor and underprivileged people of the society to live with dignity and honor.

1) The First Start
There are several sayings that endorse Islam through Prophet Muhammad, commitment to erode slavery and establish a state with equal human rights. It was narrated that Abu Dharr said (which means):

The Messenger of Allah said: “They are your brothers whom Allah has put under your authority, so if Allah has put a person’s brother under his authority, let him, feed him from what he eats and clothe him from what he wears, and let him not overburden him with work, and if he does overburden him with work, then let him help him.” [Narrated by al-Bukhari].

It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah said (which means): 

I heard Abu’l-Qaasim (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) say: “Whoever accuses his slave when he is innocent of what he says will be flogged on the Day of Resurrection, unless he is as he said.” [Narrated by al-Bukhari].

Ibn ‘Umar manumitted (release) a slave of his, then he picked up a stick or something from the ground and said (which means):

There is no more reward in it than the equivalent of this, but I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) say: “Whoever slaps his slave or beats him, his expiation is to manumit him.” [Narrated by Muslim].

Moreover, The Prophet convinced people that Allah Almighty created all human equal and will only consider your virtues and devotion. It is clear from the Quran (which means),

Now, indeed, We have conferred dignity on the children of Adam, and borne them over land and sea, and provided for them sustenance out of the good things of life, and favored them far above most of Our creation” [Al-Quran, Surah Al-Isra, verse 70]

2) Emphasis on Rights of Slaves
There are many occasions when Prophet Muhammad emphasized on the rights of the slaves and strictly ordered their masters to treat them well with the provision of all basic rights like marriage, independent lodging, and participation in other social events. He applied the principle of “eye for an eye” for the rights of slaves. Samara reported that he heard that Prophet Muhammad said (which means):

Whoever kills his slave, we will kill him and whoever cuts off his slave’s nose, we will cut off his nose”[Narrated in Sunan an-Nasa’i].

Prophet Muhammad condemned any kind of physical abuse against slaves. It was a usual practice in Arabs to cut nose or ears of slaves as a punishment, in extreme furry masters have the authority to even kill their slaves. Ibn Umar reported that once he slapped his slave and then freed his slave as he heard Prophet Muhammad saying (which means):

Whoever slaps his servant, his expiation is to liberate him” [Narrated by Muslim].

These accounts clearly indicate his stand on the rights of slaves. Many neutral historians reported the kindness and concern of Prophet Muhammad for the acceptance of slaves as dignified members of society. It is reported by Arnold Joseph Toynbee that the extinction of race consciousness among Muslims was one of the outstanding achievements of Islam, and in the contemporary world, there is, a crying need for the propagation of this Islamic virtue.

3) Initiatives to Erode Slavery
Islam was the first religion that took many concrete steps to erode slavery in accordance with orders of God Almighty and Prophet Muhammad. It clearly defines that slaves are bound to do physical work, but their minds are free to make independent decisions. War slaves can be freed after paying ransom or any productive service to the Islamic state. Like prisoners of War of Badar were freed by Prophet Muhammad after teaching Muslims how to read and write.

The Slaves cannot be physically abused and must be treated on the basis of equality. Al-Ma’rur bin Suwaid quoted a Hadith (which means):

I noticed that Abu Dharr Al-Ghifari wearing a cloak, exactly like his slave. We inquired that both were dressed alike? He told that once he abused his slave and he complained about him to the Prophet Muhammad. The Prophet inquired him, ‘Did you abuse him by slighting his mother?’ and added, ‘Your slaves are your brethren, but Allah has given you authority over them. So, if one has his brethren under his control, he should feed them with the like of what he eats and clothe them with the like of what he wears. You should not overburden them with what they cannot bear, and if you do so, help them.

Islamic history is full of events when Prophet Muhammad and his companions treated their slaves with mercy, freed them, and fought for their rights. As pre-Islamic Arab society was dependent on slaved labor so Prophet Muhammad did not prohibit it at once, but gradually molded the society in a direction where slaves should be accepted as equal citizens. He conveyed the message of Allah to the people that they should spend money to free a slave as it is an act of piety and has the greatest reward in the hereafter.

The offerings given for the sake of God are only for the poor and the needy, and those who are in charge thereof, and those whose hearts are to be won over, and for the freeing of slaves, and those who are overburdened with debts, and in God’s path, and to the traveler; an ordinance from God – and God is all-knowing, wise” [Al-Quran, Surah Al-Tawbah, verse 60].

Similarly, on another occasion Allah the almighty appreciated the freeing of slaves and gave them two options Mukataba (agreement) and Kitab. Muslims were encouraged to pay their religious taxes to free slaves or free them for the sake of God or free them if they pay back their costs. Allah said (which means):

And those of your slaves who wish to enter the contract of Mukataba (a written agreement between master and slave, where slave pay back money to his master) with them, if you recognize some good of them. And give them out of the wealth of Allah that he has given to you.” [Al-Quran, Surah An-Nur, verse 33]


This message led the foundation of Islam as in the beginning poor and enslaves people embraced Islam to gain self-respect. Whenever the history of slavery is discussed role of Prophet Muhammad in the erosion of slavery cannot be denied. He will always be remembered as a source of inspiration, a symbol of humanity and mercy for people suffering from torments of life.

Ibrahim and the Idol Worship.

During the olden times, people everywhere used to carve stones and make idols for worship. These statues were considered as gods, and people bowed and prayed before them. Namrud, the King of Babylonia, was once informed by his astrologers that someone was going to be born who would destroy his kingdom. He would teach people another religious concept: that of worshipping none but only one God….

(c) Glasgow Museums; Supplied by The Public Catalogue FoundationDuring the olden times, people everywhere used to carve stones and make idols for worship. These statues were considered as gods, and people bowed and prayed before them. Namrud, the King of Babylonia, was once informed by his astrologers that someone was going to be born who would destroy his kingdom. He would teach people another religious concept: that of worshipping none but only one God.

On hearing that, Namrud gave orders that no woman would conceive, hence no child would be born in his kingdom. If any child was born, it would be killed immediately. The mother of Ibrahim (Abraham) became pregnant. But by the will of Allah, no sign of pregnancy was to be seen. When the time of birth of the child came nearer, she went out of the town and hid in a cave. There, Ibrahim was born. She then covered the child with a cloth, closed the mouth of the cave with stones and returned home without the child. She told nobody about what had happened.

The child was alone in the cave with no one to care for him. He was sucking the milk which flowed of his fingers – by the grace of Almighty God. The child grew up under Allah’s protection. From time to time, his mother would come secretly to the cave to watch him. This went on for thirteen years. On one occasion when the mother visited the son, he beseeched her to take him out of the cave. The mother warned that he would be killed by the King if he came to know about him. But the child insisted that he be brought out of the cave as 13 years had been a long time.

Thus Ibrahim came out of the cave for the first time. It was late in the evening when the sun was setting. When the night grew dark, he saw a star and he said, “Is this, my Lord?” But when it set, he said, “I love not the setting ones.” Then, when he saw the moon rising he said: “Is this, my Lord?” But when it set, he said, “If my Lord had not guided me I would have certainly been among the mistaken ones. Then he saw the sun rising and said, “Is this, my Lord?” Is this the greatest?”. But when it also set, he said, “O, my people! Surely. I am clear of what you set up with Allah. Surely, I have turned myself wholly to the One Who created the heavens and the earth. I am not of the ones who believe and worship anything else other than Allah – the one God.

resisting-babylon-and-the-beast-34-728The people, at that time, were not only idol-worshippers but they were also worshipping the stars, the sun, the moon etc. All the time, he was making them realise their error in their choice of ‘gods’. He was showing his people what they called a god, did not deserve to be called god and worshipped if it disappeared at times. So Prophet Ibrahim started preaching the belief of One God and persuading his people not to worship anything else but Allah, the one and only God.

Once, it was the time of the annual festival in the town and according to their custom, Namrud, the King, went out of town with all his people to celebrate the day. Prophet Ibrahim did not accompany them but stayed behind. He went to the temple where all the idols were kept and broke all of them one by one. He left the biggest idol untouched but put the axe on its shoulder.

fallen-dagon-statueWhen the King and his people returned they were very angry to see their idols destroyed. He said that he would kill the person who had caused that damage. The people told him that it must be a young man, named Ibrahim who always preached against the worship of idols. He must have destroyed them.

When Ibrahim was asked if it was he who broke the idols. He replied, “Why do you not ask the chief (of the idols) who is standing safe. Perhaps he has done it, that is if your idol gods can speak, ask them as to who broke them.” Thus Ibrahim did not utter a lie denying what he had done. He only wanted the people to first ask their own idols as to who had done it?

Namrud got very angry and asked his people their opinion. Everyone suggested that Ibrahim must be punished by burning him alive in a big fire.

So, Ibrahim was jailed, while Namrud ordered that all available firewood in the forest be collected and be heaped up in one open place. When this was done, it was set alight. The fire burnt fiercely and widely for days and days. It had generated so much heat that no bird dared to fly nearby. At the appointed day on which Ibrahim was to be put in the fire and burnt, Namrud with his large army and followers came out to that place to watch.

fogo_cuteloOn seeing the huge fire and the intense heat, he began to ponder as to how it would be possible to convey Ibrahim into the fire. Suddenly Satan, the devil, came and suggested that a type of crane be prepared which could be used to hurl Ibrahim into the fire. This would cut out the need for any assistance of human hands to do the risky job of delivering Ibrahim into the raging fire.

The crane was constructed and Ibrahim was lifted and readied to be dumped into the fire. On seeing this tragic happening. the angels in heaven and all the creatures in the sky became deeply upset. Taking permission from Almighty Allah, one by one, they all came to Ibrahim to inquire if they could be of any help to him. Ibrahim said that he was seeking help and protection from none of them. The one from whom he expected help (that is Almighty Allah), was fully aware of the dangerous situation in which he was and would help him if need be.

Just then, the angel, Jibrail came to Ibrahim and gave him a ring on which the following was inscribed (written):

“There is no God but Allah”

“Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah”

“I depend and rely upon Allah”

“I submit my affair to the will of Allah.”

Ibrahim put the holy ring on his finger and the grace and blessing of Allah began to be showered upon him. Then came the command from Allah, “O fire! Be nothing but coolness and peace for Ibrahim.”

Thus the burning fire instantly lost its heat and no harm came to the Prophet.

It is related that when Prophet Ibrahim was being thrown into the fire, the angels in the heaven and the birds in the air cried in protest. One of them, a small weak bird decided to burn itself along with the Prophet. As it was flying towards the fire, the angel Jibrail was sent by Allah to inquire the reason why it was going to commit suicide! The angel stopped the bird on the ground and asked it to explain its strange action – that of trying to burn itself along with Prophet Ibrahim. The bird said: “Don’t you know that the friend of God is to be burnt in the fire? As it is not within my strength to save him, I am showing my sorrow and sympathy by accompanying him into the fire!”

The angel conveyed this incident to Allah. Then came a command from Allah to tell the bird that it would be rewarded for its sincere feeling shown for the Prophet. It was asked what it wished to have so that the wish is fulfilled. The bird in reply said: “I do not wish to have anything from this world. All I wish is to constantly remember Allah in prayer. There are a thousand and one names of Allah. I know hardly a hundred names. I wish to be taught the remaining names. Almighty Allah fulfilled its desire. As it flew from tree to tree, it went on singing the names of Allah, thus remembering Him day and night.

To respect and sympathise with the friends of Allah; to remember Allah constantly in prayer is better than fulfilling worldly desires. This is what the little weak bird has shown to us. These are the acts of virtue which would one day undoubtedly earn great rewards from Allah. Allah says in the Quran:

“Hast thou not turned thy vision to one who disputed with Ibrahim about his Lord, because Allah had granted him power? Ibrahim said: “My Lord is He Who Giveth life and death.” He said: “I give life and death”. Said Ibrahim: “But it is Allah that causeth the sun to rise from the East: Do thou then cause him to rise from the West.” Thus was he confounded who (in arrogance) rejected faith. Nor doth Allah Give guidance to a people unjust.” [Al-Quran, Surah Al-Baqarah, verse 258]

Heraclius and Islam

Arabia, during the time of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, was a country without any central authority. It was a country far from the civilised nations of those days…..

800px-Map_of_Arabia_600_AD.svgArabia, during the time of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, was a country without any central authority. It was a country far from the civilised nations of those days.

Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas in Sahih al-Bukhari, at the time Prophet Muhammad was spreading Islam; asking people to turn away from worshipping idols to worshipping Allah, the Almighty, the All-Knower, the Master.

The Prophet sent letters of invitation to Kings and Rulers of various countries in the world, inviting them to embrace Islam. Many of the letters were met with a favourable response whilst others were rejected. In many cases, the messengers of the Prophet were badly treated and abused. But the Prophet was not worried by these setbacks. He was inviting people to the right path and a few setbacks could not deter him from propagating Islam.

animation-reconstruction-constantinople_1-770x437Abu Sufyan a leader of the tribe of Quraish and the arch-enemy of the Prophet was in Constantinople on a business trip, when the Prophet’s letter of invitation reached Heraclius, the Byzantine emperor of Eastern Roman Empire. Heraclius, at the time, was in his court at Constantinople celebrating his victory over the Persians.

Heraclius read the letter through an interpreter and then asked the people in his court, to find out if there was someone in the city, who knew the Prophet. Abu Sufyan with his companions was brought into the court.

The emperor asked Abu Sufyan, “What kind of family does Muhammad belong to?”

“Noble”, replied Abu Sufyan

“Has there been a king in his family?” Heraclius asked.

“No,” said Abu Sufyan

“Are the people who have accepted his religion poor or rich?”, Heraclius questioned again.

“They are poor”, replied Abu Sufyan.

Heraclius was now becoming more and more interested and he went on asking questions.

His next question was, “Are his followers on the increase or decrease?”

“Increasing”, Abu Sufyan replied shortly.

“Have you known him to tell lies?” asked Heraclius.

“No”, admitted Abu Sufyan.

“Does he ever go against his convents?”, Heraclius once again asked.

“Not so far. But we have to see whether he carries out the new agreement made between us and him”, Abu Sufyan answered lengthily for a change.

“Have you ever fought him in wars?” Heraclius questioned.

“Yes”, answered Abu Sufyan

“What has been the result?” Heraclius asked, getting more and more interested.

“Sometimes we have won, sometimes he”, replied Abu Sufyan.

“What does he teach?” asked Heraclius.

“Worship One God, join no partners with Him, carry out your prayers, be chaste, speak the truth and keep union with your relatives”, answered Abu Sufyan, even surprised at his own answer as it sounded like he was preaching Islam.

timthumbHeraclius stood up and said, “If all you said is true, then I am sure that this Prophet’s Kingdom will reach here where I am standing. I was certain that a Prophet was coming, but I didn’t know that he would be born in Arabia. If I were to go there, I would embrace Islam and wash the Prophet’s feet with my own hands.”

This was the way in which the Prophet spread Islam. He impressed them by his truthfulness, honesty, noble character and dedication in the service of Allah. He did not compel people to accept Islam under threat of waging wars, nor did he compel people to accept Islam by the force of the sword. He fought only in defence, and only when the enemies waged war on him.

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