In Da’wah: Violence Doesn’t Bring Any Good

Using gentleness with those who are hoped to embrace Islam is a desirable thing, in order to attract their hearts to it. This is with regards to the disbelievers; what then should the attitude be towards someone who is hoped to make repentance while he is a Muslim who believes in Allah and His Messenger? Is he not worthier of gentleness than the disbeliever who is hoped to embrace Islam?

In Da’wah (calling to Islam), gentleness is a form of a kind treatment that opens the heart of the recipient. This is one of the established principles of Da‘wah in Islam that is uniformly mirrored in the Quranic discourse and the practices of all Messengers of Allah with their peoples. It is more evident in the story of Prophet Ibraaheem (Abraham), may Allah exalt his mention, when he was inviting his father to believe in Allah. He repeatedly called him “O my Father”, thereby hoping to appeal to him through this firm father-son bond. It is also quite clear in the story of Prophet Moosa (Moses), may Allah exalt his mention, with Pharaoh, who claimed to be God. Allah The Exalted commanded Moosa and Haaroon (Aaron), may Allah exalt their mention, to invite Pharaoh to believe in Him with kindness; He Says (what means): “And speak to him with gentle speech that perhaps he may be reminded or fear [Allah].” [Quran 20:44] There is no doubt that gentle speech is more likely to be responded to positively.

Islam preaches this same general attitude when calling people to Allah The Exalted. Rather, the Quran emphasized it and the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) implemented it; Allah The Exalted Says (what means): “And if you had been rude [in speech] and harsh in heart, they would have disbanded from about you. So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult them in the matter.” [Quran 3:159]

Contemplating the Quran, we notice that harshness is not mentioned except in the context of fighting the enemies in battlefields. Here, there is no room for gentle speech as no sound is louder than that of the sword and spear. The rules of efficiency in combat dictate toughness when confronting the enemy until the battle comes to an end. However, even in this context, Islam preaches kindness by establishing the refined etiquette of Jihaad in this glorious religion. There should be no fighting before conducting Da‘wah (calling people to Islam). In fact, the object of Jihaad in Islam is to usher people to guidance; the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) said: ~“If a single person is guided by Allah through you, it will be better for you than a whole lot of red camels.”~~ In Islam, the purpose of Jihaad is not killing people and taking captives and war booty; rather, it is prompted by mercy in all its aspects. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) used to instruct his Companions to observe the Islamic etiquette of war, saying: ~“Set out with the blessing of Allah. Do not kill a decrepit old man, or a child, or a woman; do not steal (from the booty) or act treacherously, and do right and act kindly, for Allah loves those who act kindly.”~~

If Islam preaches kindness and gentleness in the context of war, how about that of Da‘wah?

Violence Yields no Good

Violence in the context of Da‘wah begets no good. Nothing mars Da‘wah more than violence, because the caller to Allah hopes that his call delves into the depths of the recipient to make him a person of God in his conceptions, feelings, perceptions, and attitude. It alters his whole being and transforms him to another person in terms of thought, feeling and willpower. It also targets the community to change its inherited beliefs, deeply rooted traditions, and prevailing moral and social systems that do not conform with the laws of Allah or the tenets of faith and the concepts of truth.

It is thus a substitution at the intellectual, ideological, and emotional levels. It is well known that beliefs and ideologies can never be changed through violence, force, or coercion. Being harbored by the hearts and minds, there is no way to force beliefs and ideas on others. In fact, the only effective means to change beliefs and ideas are persuasion and reasoning.

This can only be achieved by means of wisdom, clever handling of matters, and knowledge of the human nature and man’s innate inclination to hold on to the old norms, while taking into account his inherent inclination to dispute; Allah The Exalted Says (what means): “… but man has ever been, most of anything, [prone to] dispute.” [Quran 18:54] This entails adhering to gentleness and skillfully trying to win the heart and mind of the recipient to soften his heart, weaken his persistent clinging to old ideas and practices, and eliminate his prejudice.

There Should Be no Compulsion in Religion

Allah The Exalted and Glorified does not force anyone to believe in Him or embrace His religion. In fact, He forbade the believers from coercing people into embracing Islam; He Said (what means): “There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion.” [Quran 2:256] Evidently, coercion is utterly pointless as far as beliefs and ideologies are concerned. It does not yield genuine faith, as a person cannot become a true believer under duress.

It goes without saying that Allah The Exalted is able to cause all His servants to be believers; He Says (what means): “And if we had willed, We could have given every soul its guidance…” [Quran 32:13], “And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed – all of them entirely. Then, [O Muhammad], would you compel the people in order that they become believers?” [Quran 10:99]

However, He did not do so and instead provided His servants with clear and compelling evidence to usher them into the correct path, and sent them Messengers to guide them to the truth; Allah The Exalted Says (what means): “[We sent] messengers as bringers of good tidings and warners so that mankind will have no argument against Allah after the messengers.” [Quran 4:165] He then left them the choice to believe or disbelieve so that the consequences would be those of the servant’s own choice, not of someone else’s actions forced on him. Allah The Exalted Says (what means): “so whoever wills – let him believe, and whoever wills – let him disbelieve. Indeed, We have prepared for the wrongdoers a fire whose walls will surround them.” [Quran 18:29]

The Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) lived in Makkah and saw the idols everywhere, yet he did not demolish or burn them. Rather, he continued calling people to Allah and communicating the divine message to them to enlighten their minds, change their false beliefs wisely, and correct their perceptions so that the change would stem from within them out of full conviction.

The Muslim youth around the Messenger of Allah sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) were sometimes carried away by zeal for their cause and asked him to take up arms against their enemies. However, he sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) urged them to adhere to patience and commanded them to refrain from fighting the disbelievers until instructed otherwise, and concentrate their efforts, instead, on establishing the prayer and paying the Zakah until the budding Muslim community is strong enough to take the apt measures. Allah The Exalted Says (what means): “Have you not seen those who were told, ‘Restrain your hands [from fighting] and establish prayer and give Zakah’?” [Quran 4:77]

Assume that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) had given in to their wishes and commanded them to fight the disbelievers of the Quraysh, how would have the Muslims, few in number as they were then, been able to confront their enemies? Had the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) demolished the idols around the Ka’bah, what would have been the consequences of such an act?

Saddening Reality

Some ardent Muslim youth in a large Muslim country dug up the graves erected inside mosques and demolished shrines venerated by some misguided Muslims who made offerings to them. These zealous Muslim youth defended their action by bringing forth textual evidence from the Quran and Sunnah regarding the obligation of forbidding such sinful acts. There is no doubt that their intention was good and they sought to enjoin good and forbidding evil. However, their actions incurred adverse consequences; they were arrested and so were large numbers of scholars, seekers of knowledge and religious Muslims. All of them were severely harmed, and their families suffered material and moral harm as well.

Add to that, these shrines were rebuilt better than they were before. In brief, forbidding the evil in this case incurred a graver one.

I recall another incident in a Muslim country where a statue of a naked woman was installed at a square. It was an old worn-out statue that people hardly cared about or noticed. A zealous Muslim young man broke the statue and vandalized it. Perhaps he was somewhat right, but again the consequences were unfavorable; he was arrested and subjected to much suffering, and the officials rebuilt the once-neglected statue, turning it to a better and more noticeable version. It became the talk of the town and the incident actually drew people’s attention to it even more.

We do not accept or approve of preserving such idols and statues or of building shrines and allowing people to circumambulate them. We do not accept or approve of any sinful act committed in a Muslim country; however, we must consider the consequences of actions and their results. Forbidding an evil may be considered an evil itself if it led to an even graver evil, as Muslim scholars agreed.

Addressing corruption and evils with violence or in a manner that does not conform to the principles of the Sharia and the due conditions of enjoining good and forbidding evil often incurs legal implications on the doer under the man-made laws. It also constitutes a major irritant for some influential notables, who benefit from preserving such corruption and evil. Thereupon, the caller to Allah would be exposing himself to the punishment and oppression of authorities and no good would be generated from his action. It would not benefit the call to Islam or Muslims in the slightest. His efforts would be wasted and his call would be rejected and prevented from spreading.

We are not suggesting that the caller to Allah should be a coward; rather, we want him to expand his mental and psychological horizons and address the root causes of the problem wisely and patiently, taking into account the beginnings and endings of matters. This is the normal way of addressing problems.

In fact, demolishing idols and statues does not eradicate corruption or uproot disbelief, and it will not change the situation in the slightest. On the contrary, people would more likely erect new ones or rebuild the broken ones to be better than before, and they may be blinded by stubbornness from seeing the truth. Most likely, such an act would enrage them, driving them to retaliate against Muslims and their Messenger sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) as did the people of Ibraaheem (Abraham), may Allah exalt his mention, when he demolished their idols.

The Role of the Caller to Allah

The role of the caller to Allah is not to kill idol worshipers. Killing them is pointless because it does not end idol worship. His role is not to demolish these idols, while their love remains vivid in the hearts of their worshipers; because, as we said before, they would rebuild them and make them better than they were. Rather, the role of the caller to Allah is to demolish the idols within the hearts and minds of the worshippers until their love is eradicated and people learn that these idols are false gods that do not benefit or harm themselves, let alone their worshipers. He is required to uproot the reverence, love, and glorification for such idols from the hearts and channel that reverence, love, and glorification to the One who is truly worthy of them. By doing so, the worshippers will demolish the idols with their own hands after the callers to Allah have demolished them within their hearts. This is the real change, and this is the role, job and duty of the callers to Allah.


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Impact of Zakat on the Muslim

There is no doubt that Zakat (obligatory charity) has a great impact on both the person who pays it, and on the society as a whole. Among its impacts are the following:

It purifies the person who gives it from sins and acts of disobedience he committed; Allah Says (what means): {Take, [O Muhammad sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) ], from their wealth a charity by which you purify them and cause them increase.}[Quran 9:103]. Moreover, it is confirmed that the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) said: “Charity wipes out the sin exactly as water extinguishes the fire.” [At-Tirmithi]

It results in the increase and blesses of the money; linguistically, Zakat means to bless, increase, or purify. Allah Says (what means): {But whatever thing you spend [in His cause] – He will compensate it; and He is the best of providers.}[Quran 34:39]. Besides, it is confirmed that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention) said: “I swear by Allah on the following three things: ….(and he mentioned) charity does not decrease the wealth of the person who gives it.” [At-Tirmithi]

It fulfills the need of the needy; this leads to the spread of security in the society, as theft and robbery will decrease. It also means harmony in the society.

The above are some fruits yielded by the payment of Zakat, and whoever wants to find out more in this regard may refer to the books of the scholars may Allah have mercy upon them on this subject.

Allah Knows best.


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Zakat: Meaning, Ruling and Benefits

The literal meaning of “Zakat” is purity. Its Islamic technical meaning designates the annual amount of wealth, food, property, etc. which a Muslim with adequate means must distribute among the rightful beneficiaries.

Zakat is a remarkable institution and a major pillar of Islam. Allah, Almighty, Says (what means): “And establish the Prayer, and pay Zakat (the poor-due)…” [Quran, 2:43]

Moreover, Zakat is an obligatory act because it is one of the pillars of Islam: The Prophet SAW (may Allah exalt his mention) said: “Islam was built upon five (pillars): `The testimony that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; the establishment of the prayer; paying the obligatory charity (Zakat); pilgrimage to the House (Hajj to the Kaaba in Makkah) and fasting (the month of) Ramadan.”‘ [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

Zakat is a small portion of the Muslim’s wealth that must be given to the poor or to other specified beneficiaries. Whoever claims that Zakat is not obligatory and refuses to pay it, is not a Muslim, but a Muslim who refuses to pay Zakat due to stinginess, while affirming its obligation, has committed a great sin for which one will be severely punished.

Allah, Almighty, Says (what means): “…and as for those who hoard treasures of gold and silver, and do not spend them for the sake of Allah, announce unto them a painful torment. On the Day when that [hoarded wealth] shall be heated in the Fire of Hell and with it will be branded their foreheads, their flanks, and their backs, (and it will be said unto them): `This is the treasure which you hoarded for yourselves. Now taste of what you used to hoard.” [Quran 9: 34-35]

He, Almighty, also Says (what means): “And let not those who covetously withhold of that which Allah has bestowed on them of His Bounty (Wealth) think that it is good for them (and so they do not pay Zakat). No, it will be worse for them; the things which they covetously withheld will be tied to their necks like a collar on the Day of Resurrection…” [Quran 3:180]

There is no equivalent in any other language to the word “Zakat” and the meaning it conveys. It is not just a form of charity, or alms-giving or tax or tithe. Nor, is it simply an expression of kindness; it is all of these combined and much more. It is a duty enjoined by Allah and a source of purification for the individual and society as a whole.

He, Almighty, Says (what means): “Take from their wealth ‘sadaqah’ (Zakat) in order to purify them and sanctify them with it.” [Quran 9: 103]

Zakat benefits society in many ways. Here is an explanation of the far-reaching effects of it:

  1. Zakat purifies the individual and his wealth. The status of his wealth is increased with Allah and in turn, he will be rewarded. When a person becomes liable for paying Zakat, a certain percentage of his wealth should be distributed immediately in the correct manner, because at that point, the wealth which is to be distributed does not belong to him. If this wealth is retained, it spoils the status of all of his wealth.
  2. Zakat does not only purify the property of the one who gives it, but it also purifies his heart from selfishness and greed. In return, it purifies the heart of the recipient from envy and jealousy, and it fosters in his heart goodwill and warm wishes toward the contributor. As a result, the rich and poor of society are bound together as a unit, working together and helping one another.
  3. Zakat decreases the sufferings of the needy and poor members of society, however, those in need should not depend on it completely.
  4. Zakat is an effective means of developing the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the well-to-do, and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the underprivileged.
  5. Zakat is a clear manifestation of the spiritual and humanitarian interactions between the individual and society. It is a sound illustration of the fact that though Islam does not hinder private enterprise or condemn private possessions, it does not tolerate selfish and greedy control of wealth and property. It is an expression of the general philosophy of Islam which adopts a moderate and effective course between the Individual and Society.

In conclusion, we mention a calling by Allah, Almighty (what means): “O You who believe! Shall I lead you to a bargain that will save you from grievous suffering [in this world and in the life to come)? You are to believe in Allah and His Messenger and strive hard in Allah’s cause with your possessions and your lives: this is for your own good – if you had known it.” [Qur’an, 61: 10-11]


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Payment of Zakat in Favour of The Islamic Solidarity Fund and Its Waqf.

Bismillah Ar-Rahman Arrahim

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Universe, and prayers and blessings be upon Muhammad, the last of the Prophets, upon his Family and his Companions.

RESOLUTION NO 27 (2/4): CONCERNING PAYMENT OF ZAKAT IN FAVOUR OF THE ISLAMIC SOLIDARITY FUND AND ITS WAQF

The Council of the Islamic Fiqh Academy, holding its Fourth session, in Jeddah, (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), from 18 to 23 Jumada Thani 1408 H (February, 6 to 11, 1988).

Having considered the explanatory note on “payment of Zakat in favor of the Islamic Solidarity Fund and its Waqf ” submitted to the Academy, and the research papers forwarded to the Academy at this session on this subject.

RESOLVES

First: Zakat funds may not be remitted to the Waqf of the Islamic Solidarity Fund (ISF) because this would lead to barring of Zakat funds from its legitimate beneficiaries defined in the Holy Book.

Second: The Islamic Solidarity Fund (ISF) may act as an agent for individuals and institutions in channeling Zakat to its legitimate beneficiaries under the following conditions :

  1. The rules of Shari’a for such an agency should apply to both principal and agent.
  2. The ISF should amend its statutes and objectives so as to be qualified to undertake operations of this nature.
  3. The ISF should set up a special account to handle funds received as Zakat, so that they may not be mixed with other contributions received for purposes other than Zakat

Zakat funds shall not be utilized for covering administrative expenses such as wages, salaries or other expenditures that are not among approved Zakat expenses.

  1. The payer of Zakat shall be entitled to choose the beneficiary among the eight recognized channels of Zakat and the ISF —in such case- must comply with his wish.
  2. The ISF shall disburse such Zakat funds to the beneficiary as speedily as possible, within a maximum period of one year, so that beneficiaries may utilize their shares.

THE COUNCIL

Eager to enable the Islamic Solidarity Fund (ISF) to fulfill its charitable aims (as stipulated in its statutes) and for which it was established ;

Committed to the resolution of the 2nd Islamic Summit Conference, which created the ISF and set the mechanism of its financing through contributions from the Member States;

Considering the sporadic remittances of voluntary contributions by some states ;

URGES Muslim countries, Governments, institutions and prosperous individuals to perform their duty and consolidate the resources of the ISF so that it may fulfill its noble objectives in the service of the Islamic Ummah.

Verily, Allah is All-Knowing

Investment of Zakat Funds in Profit Generating Projects Without Attributing Individual Property Title to The Beneficiary.

Bismillah Arrahman Arrahim

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Universe, and Prayers and Blessings be upon Sayyidina Muhammad, the last of the Prophets, and upon his Family and his Companions

RESOLUTION NO 15 (3-3)

CONCERNING INVESTMENT OF ZAKAT FUNDS IN PROFIT GENERATING PROJECTS WITHOUT ATTRIBUTING INDIVIDUAL PROPERTY TITLE TO THE BENEFICIARY

The Council of the Islamic Fiqh Academy, holding its third session, in Amman, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, from to 13 Safar 1407 H (11 to 16 October 1986),

After reviewing the studies made on the issue of “Investment of Zakat funds in Profit generating projects without disbursing it to the individual beneficiary

After listening to the opinions of the members and experts on this subject;

RESOLVES

It is permissible, in principle, to put Zakat funds in investment projects which eventually lead to be owned by those who are deserving of Zakat, or which are under the control and administration of the entity which is responsible and has the jurisdiction over collecting and distributing Zakat, provided that it is done after satisfying the basic and immediate needs of the beneficiaries and with proper guarantees against loss.

Verily, Allah is All-Knowing 

Zakat on Debts

Issued by: International Islamic Fiqh Academy – مجمع الفقه الإسلامي  712

RESOLUTION No 1 (1/2)

CONCERNING ZAKAT ON DEBTS

The Council of the Islamic Fiqh Academy, during its second session, held in Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), from 10 to 16 Rabiul Thani 1406 H (22-28 December 1985);

Having looked into the studies presented about << Zakat on debts >>, and
After thorough discussions which covered the subject from its different aspects, it became evident that :

  1. There is no statement in the Book of Allah, Almighty, or the Sunnah of His Messenger (PBUH), elaborating (rules of) Zakat on Debts. ;
  2. Numerous views have been reported from the Companions and the Tabe’een (the generation after the Companions) –May Allah be satisfied with them- from the viewpoint of the method of paying Zakat on debts.
  3. Accordingly, the Islamic Schools of Jurisprudence have differed clearly on the subject.

4. The difference of opinion (regarding this subject) is, in turn, caused by their differing opinion regarding the (following) fundamental principle: whether receivable assets can be classified as actually received assets.

The Council RESOLVES THE FOLLOWING:

1. The lender is obligated to pay Zakat, every year, on his loaned money, if the borrower is solvent.

2. The lender is obligated to pay Zakat after the elapse of one year starting from the day he actually receives his loaned money if the borrower is impoverished or controverting.

Verily, Allah is all-knowing 

Zakat + Sadaqah: The Productive Investment of a Lifetime

What if I told you about an offer where you can get the product, plus double your money back, plus extra prizes? What would you do? You’d probably immediately text all your friends to tell them about it and then rush down to the shop to make the purchase.

While many of us tend to chase after special offers and reduced prices in this dunya (world), we often overlook the fact that Allah subḥānahu wa ta’āla (glorified and exalted be He) has offered us an even better deal that will benefit us both in this dunya and the akhirah (hereafter). What deal am I talking about? Sadaqah (voluntary charity).

The following points show how this noble act can increase our productivity in this life and in preparing for the next.

1. Sadaqah is a guaranteed investment.
‘Who is he that will loan to Allah a beautiful loan which Allah will double unto his credit and multiply it many times?’ [2:245].

The above verse teaches us that by generously giving to the poor and needy, Allah will increase our wealth and blessings in this life, wipe out sin, increase reward and provide shade on the Day of Judgment and more insha’Allah!

What more could we ask for? Money back, profit, good health, barakah (blessings) in our wealth, shade on the Day of Judgement, sadaqah is definitely the best investment for our dunya and akhirah.

Forget special offers, reduced prices and buy one get one free deal – a productive Muslim knows the ultimate best way to spend his/her wealth – in the way of Allah.

2. Sadaqah is a means of gaining barakah in your wealth.
It may be hard for us to give sadaqah when we are barely able to make ends meet. However, it is reported in Sahih Muslim that the Prophet ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said:

Charity does not decrease the wealth and the servant who forgives, Allah adds to his respect; and the one who shows humility, Allah elevates him in the estimation (of the people).”

and

”There is not a day in which the obedient slaves rise in the morning except that two angels descend, and one of them says: ‘O Allaah! Compensate the one who spends.’ The other angel says: ‘O Allaah! Destroy the wealth of the one who is niggardly.”

If we truly believe and apply these hadiths, we will come to learn that we can never lose from giving sadaqah, but instead, we gain immensely from it.

However, gaining from sadaqah may not always be in a physical form. When we give sadaqah, it doesn’t necessarily mean that our salaries will increase or we will miraculously stumble upon a goldmine. It may mean that Allah will put barakah into our wealth and possessions instead. By regularly giving sadaqah, we will quickly notice that although we are still spending the same amount of money on the same expenses, we will still have plenty of left insha’Allah.

Giving sadaqah can also put barakah in our time and personal matters. We may find that after giving sadaqah, Allah will ease all our affairs.

If you have been trying to save up for something, or if you have debt that you haven’t been able to repay, or if you have a goal that you just haven’t been able to achieve; as a productive Muslim you should set aside a portion of your salary every month for sadaqah – even if it’s a very small amount. The difference it will make in your life will be worth it insha’ Allah.

3. Sadaqah serves as a means of reaping continuous rewards after your death.
When we work for something that will grant us benefit in this worldly life (e.g. a promotion, etc.), we tend to put in a lot of time, effort and sometimes money in order to achieve our goals.

A productive Muslim does the same for the akhirah. He/she invests time, hard work and money in activities that will bring great reward, and some that will continue to benefit him even after death.

Why not invest money in building a mosque, digging a well, opening a school, planting a tree or any other form of sadaqah jariyah (ceaseless charity)?

“When a man dies, his acts come to an end, but three, recurring charity, or knowledge (by which people) benefit, or a pious son, who prays for him (for the deceased)” [Muslim].

If you’ve provided money to build a well, you will be rewarded for every single drop of water drunk from it while you’re alive and after your death until the Day of Judgment insha’Allah. If you contribute to building a mosque, you will be rewarded for every single prayer performed in it. If you put in the time and effort to teach someone Qur’an or some form of knowledge, you will be rewarded every time that person recites the Qur’an or shares the knowledge with someone else.

SubhanAllah. Imagine the reward you will find reserved for you in the akhirah, perhaps it will take you to higher and higher stations of Jannah by His Mercy!

Sadaqah is a special offer from Allah that stands as long as we’re alive. Make sadaqah a productive habit this Ramadan, and a habit throughout your life before it’s too late!

”And hasten to forgiveness from your Lord and a garden as wide as the heavens and earth, prepared for the righteous; Who spend [in the cause of Allah] during ease and hardship and who restrain anger and who pardon the people – and Allah loves the doers of good” [3:133-134]

May Allah, The Most Generous, make us from those who give regular sadaqah and may He accept it from us. Ameen.


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What is the Ruling on Mal al-Dimar? [Shafi’i School]

Particularly to Shafi’i school, what is the ruling on money which is owner does not have possession of to benefit from; does one need to pay zakat on it?

Answer:

Perhaps what is being asked about is “mal al-dimar,” which is mal (wealth) that its owner is incapable to benefit from due to it not being in his possession. In Minhaj, Imam Nawawi mentioned it, “…and in the usurped, lost, and disputed, according to the relied-upon opinion [zakat is obligatory], and it is not obligatory to pay it until returned…” (See: Kanz al-Raghibin v. 1, p. 436-37)

If the zakatable wealth in the question is from what has been mentioned by Imam Nawawi here, then there is zakat with the mentioned detail. Imam Shafi’i also has a qawl qadim in regards to mal al-dimar, that zakat is not obligatory as there is no benefit from it for the owner when it is not in his possession and he is prevented from transacting with it. This is the Madhhab (school) of Imam Abu Hanifah and his two students and narrated from the Hanbalis too.

It is most prudent that one takes the first view; it is mufta bihi according to the Shafiyyah. And it is permissible to make taqlid of either.

And Allah knows best. Shafiifiqh.com Fatwa Dept.

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Rules and Ratio of Zakat In Islam

Zakat is the purification of maal (wealth). It is to be paid once in a year i.e. at the end of a calendar year when at the end we are left with any possessions on which zakat can be counted. There is a question about zakat payment. People often forget their poor neighbors and poor relatives while paying zakat and pay it to the distant NGOs or to any organization. There are certain rules devised in shariah about payment of zakat and who deserve to get it first.

Here, one important thing should be noted that taking zakat is not an insult, rather zakat is that purest part of the money that is taken and given in the name of Allah SWT as an obligation.

1. Zakat cannot be given to a person who owns 85 gram of gold or 595 gram of silver or the equivalent wealth. A person who owns household items like carpets and utensils, etc that are under possession and are not being used, then these items come under the accumulation of wealth then such a person does not deserve zakat. Even if given zakat, that will serve the obligation.

2. Zakat cannot be given to non-muslims.

3. Zakat cannot be given to mother, father, maternal and paternal grandparents, or great grandparents, to offsprings, to grand or great-grandchildren, husband to wife or wife to husband. Other than them, zakat can be given to other relatives, such as brothers, sisters, cousins, nieces, nephews, etc.

4. Zakat cannot be given to sayyids, i.e. to the descendants of Prophet Muhammad SAW from His daughter Fatima RA and His uncle Abbas. But only the genuine sayyid, and not every person is sayyid who claims to be so.

5. Zakat cannot be given as payment of services.

6. Zakat cannot be paid for the building, repairing or renovation of mosques because a mosque is a worship place and called the place of Allah SWT.

7. A person cannot use zakat for burial and such expenses but if the heirs of the dead as poor, they can take zakat and can use it for the same purpose.

8. Zakat money cannot be used to pay the outstanding debts of a person who died. If paid, such action will be considered invalid.


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