Kitab Al-Kasb Series (Part 42): Obligation of Asking in an Exigency if One is not Capable of Earning.

Every Wednesday, I will share a part of the translation of the book Kitab Al-Kasb (the book of Earning a Livelihood) written by Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani.


Part 42: Obligation of Asking in an Exigency if One is not Capable of Earning
As for when a person is incapable of earning, but he is able to go out and do the round of doors and ask, then it is incumbent on him to do so; for if he does not do that until he is destroyed, then he is sinful according to the scholars of jurisprudence.

Some of the ascetics say, “Asking is permissible for him by way of dispensation, hence if he forsakes it until he dies, he is not sinful, for he is adhering to stringency.” This view approaches what was transmitted from al-Hasan ibn Ziyad, that a person who is on a journey in the company of a companion who has water, while he does not have its price, he is not obliged to ask his companion for water. If he does dry ablution and performs the prayer without asking for the water, his prayer is permissible according to him (al-Hasan), whereas it is not permissible according to us.

The reasoning of their view is that in asking (or begging) there is a disgrace, and it is incumbent on the believer to safeguard himself from disgrace; and the elucidation of this is in what was transmitted from ‘Ali (which means):

Surely to haul rocks from high mountains’ peaks
Is more endearing to me than the favors of men;
People say to me, “in eaning there is dishonor,”
But I say, “dishonor lies in the sordidness of asking.”

For what attaches to him of dishonor from asking is most certain, while what reaches him of its benefit is only imaginary, as he may be given what he asks, or he may not be given; and asking is a dispensation for him without it being something incumbent on him, while the imaginary does not thwart is certain.

However, our argument in this matter is that asking brings him to that by which his self can stand upright, and by which he becomes strong to render obedience, hence asking is incumbent on him, precisely like earning in respect of one who is capable of earning; and hence the meaning of dishonor in asking does not apply in this situation.

Do you not see that Allah tells about Musa (Moses) and his teacher (Prophet Khidr), on both be blessing and peace, that they asked when in need? Allah says about them, “They asked the people of the town for food.” [Al-Quran, surah al-Khaf, verse 77].  And “istit’am” means to ask for food, and they were not asking by way of paying (al-ujrah, for what they asked). Do you not see that He says, “If you wished, you could have gotten paid for that” [Al-Quran, surah al-Khaf, verse 77]. Thus we know that it was by way of doing good in the manner of gifting or charity, notwithstanding the scholars’ disagreement about whether accepting charity is permissible for the prophets apart from our Prophet, on him and on them be blessing and peace, as we shall elucidate.

Likewise, the Messenger of Allah had asked when in need, as when he said to one of his Companions, “Is there anything you have which we eat?” [Narrated by Muslim and al-Nasa’i]. The prophet said to a people, “Do you have water kept overnight in waterskins? If not, then we sip some from the stream” [Narrated by al-Bukhari]. He asked a man for a lamb shank (or shoulder), saying, “Hand me a shank,” as recorded in a long hadith [which narrated by al-Tirmidhi].

If there were a disgrace in asking when in need, the Prophets would not have done so, for surely they were the most removed of people from earning what causes disgrace. Moreover, what keeps his body and soul together is a right which is due to him in the wealth of people, and thus there is no meaning of disgrace with regard to seeking a right which is due to him, hence it is incumbent on him to ask.

But as for when he is capable of earning, then that is not a right which is due to him, but rather his right is in his earning, hence he is obliged to earn and not ask anyone of the people; however, it is for him to ask his Lord, as Musa (Moses) did by saying, “My Lord, I am in need of anything good you send me” [Al-Quran, surah al-Qasas, verse 24]. We have also been commanded to do likewise, for Allah says, “And ask Allah of His bounty!” [Al-Quran, surah al-Nisa’, verse 32]. The Prophet says, “Ask Allah for your needs, even salt for your cooking pots and thongs for your sandals” [Narrated by al-Bazzar and ibn Hibban].

References:

22 The Book of Earning-700x700


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Kitab Al-Kasb Series (Part 41): The Obligation to Feed the Needy and the Mention of Its Elucidation

Every Wednesday, I will share a part of the translation of the book Kitab Al-Kasb (the book of Earning a Livelihood) written by Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani.


Part 41: The Obligation to Feed the Needy and the Mention of Its Elucidation.
Imam Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani says, “It is obligatory for people to feed the needy at the time when he is incapable of going out and seeking (a living).” This question involves several clarifications.

One, when the needy is incapable of going out to seek a living, the one who knows about his situation is obliged to feed him the amount by which he can be fortified to go out and observe the religious acts of devotion-if he is able to do so-for the Prophet has said, “He does not believe who retires satiated while his neighbour by his side is starving,” [refer Abu Ghuddah p. 186 n.2) so much so that if he died and nobody who knew about his state fed him, then they all share in the sinning together; for the Prophet has said, “If any person dies forsaken in the midst of an affluent people, then the protection of Allah and the protection of His Messenger shall surely be cut loose from them” [Abu Ghuddah says he has not come across this hadith].

Likewise, if there is nothing for someone who knows about his situation to give him, but he is able to go out to people to inform them about his situation that they may assist him, then it is obligatory for him to do so; for it is incumbent on him to ward off from himself what has befallen him as far as possible, and to render obedience as much as he can. If they refrain from helping him until he dies, then they share in sinning; but if some of them do so then the obligation to help is absolved from the rest.

This is analogous to the act of ransoming the prisoner of war. If someone among the believers falls into the hand of the people of war as a prisoner, and they intend his execution, then it is obligatory on every Muslim who knows about his situation to ransom him with his wealth if he is capable of doing so, and if he is not capable, then he is to inform others who are capable of doing so. When some of them observe that obligation then it is absolved from the rest because the objective is attained; and there is no difference between the two meaning, for the hunger that is stirred up is in its nature an enemy whose destructiveness is feared, just like the enemy from among the polytheists.

And as for the case when the needy person is able to go out but unable to earn his living, then it is incumbent on him to go out so that his situation is known to others. And as for whoever who knows about his situation, if he has anything incumbent on him to give out in charity of the obligatory alms, then he should give it to him, for he has found for what is due on him a place to pay and a person who is deserving (of the payment). Hence he should definitely release himself from the obligation by paying him, for he (the deserving) is closer to him than others whom he may not know directly or personally.

And he is recommended to be generous to him if he has already given him what was due on him of the obligatory alms, for Allah has said, “And do good, for Allah loves those who do good” [Al-Quran, surah al-Baqarah, verse 195]. And Allah says, “Who will advance a good loan to Allah?” [Al-Quran, surah al-Hadid, verse 11]. When the Messenger of Allah was asked about the best works, he said, “Disseminating greetings of peace, provisioning of food, and prayer at night while people are sleeping” [Narrated by al-Tirmidhi and al-Bukhari].

If the person is needy but such that he is able to earn, then it is incumbent on him to earn, and it is not permissible for him to ask, due to what was narrated from the Prophet that he said, “Whoever asks people while he is not in need of what he is asking, his request will come on the day of resurrection as a laceration, or a scar, or a scratch mark on his face” [Narrated by Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi, al-Nasa’i and ibn Majah].

And it is narrated that the Prophet was dividing the alms when two men came to him asking for it, whereupon he raised his sight to them to be two sturdy men; he said, “Verily, you have no right to it, but if you wish, I shall give it to you” [Narrated by Abu Dawud and al-Nasa’i]. This means that they had no right in asking.

The Prophet says, “Alms are not permissible for the affluent, nor for one sturdy and well built” [Narrated by Abu Dawud and al-Tirmidhi], meaning it is not permissible for the strong who is capable of earning. And the Prophet says, “Asking is the last (means of) earning of the servant” [refers Abu Ghuddah p. 138-139].

However, if a person asks and he is given, it is permissible for him to partake of it, for the Prophet said, “If you wish, I shall give to you” [refers Abu Ghuddah p. 188]. If it was not permissible to partake of it, the Prophet would not have said that to the two of them. Allah said, “Charities )zakat) are only for the poor and needy, and the workers who administer them, and those who hearts have been reconciled, and those in bondage, and those in debt, and on the cause of Allah, and for the wayfarer, as an ordinance of Allah; and Allah is omniscient most wise” [Al-Quran, surah al-Tawbah, verse 60]. And the one who is able to earn is poor (as he has no wealth but only capacity to work).

References:

22 The Book of Earning-700x700

Kitab Al-Kasb Series (Part 40): Abomination of Starving the Self Except for a Sound Purpose.

Every Wednesday, I will share a part of the translation of the book Kitab Al-Kasb (the book of Earning a Livelihood) written by Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani.


Part 40: Abomination of Starving the Self Except for a Sound Purpose.
Imam Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani says, “It is not incumbent on a person to forgo eating to the extent that he becomes incapable of deriving benefit from his self.”

This means that he starves himself to extent of harming himself and destroying his stomach, such that it burns (with extreme hunger), and he thereafter can no longer benefit from eating; for partaking of food when it is needed is his self’s right in the face of hunger. The Prophet said to one of his Companions, “Your soul is your mount, so be gentle with it and do not cause it to starve” [Abu Ghuddah says he has not come across this hadith]. And the Prophet said to another, “Verily, your soul has a right over you, and your family has a right over you, and Allah has a right over you, so give to each owner of right its right” [Abu Ghuddah]. The Prophet said to al-Miqdad ibn Ma’di Kariba, “Eat, drink and dress without conceit.”

The command here (which be gentle to the soul) is in reality compulsory, since resistance from eating to this extent will expose the soul to destruction, which is forbidden, as this is tantamount to doing things that cause the disregard of the worship rituals; for one cannot perform the rituals of worship except by one’s self. Just as disregarding the mandatory worship rituals is forbidden, so doing things that cause such disregard is also forbidden.

But as for starving the self in a manner such that one is not rendered too weak thereby to perform the religious observances, and he benefits from eating thereafter, then that is allowed; for he only desists from eating in order to complete his devotion as in the case when he is fasting, or so that food is more appealing for him when he partakes of it (after a period of hunger), for the hungrier the partaker, the appealing the food partaken. When his action in this regard is due to a sound purpose then it is allowed for him.

This is analogous to what we have explained regarding eating beyond satiety, for it is forbidden for him except if he has a sound purpose for doing that. There is no sound purpose for a person to forgo eating to the extent that afterwards he can no longer derive benefit from eating, but rather in doing so he is ruining his self, whereas the sanctity of his own self which he is duty-bound to preserve is above the sanctity of another person’s self. So when he is duty-bound as far as he is able to preserve the life of another person’s self, and he is not permitted to work the cause of it’s ruin, then more so the case with regard to his own self.

Some of the ascetics have said, “If a person desists from eating until he dies, he will not be sinful, for the self is ever urging toward evil, as Allah has characterised it, and it is a person’s nemesis, as the Prophet has said, “The most adversarial adversary of a person is what lies between his two sides,” [Narrated by Bayhaqi], meaning his self. Since a person should not nurture his adversary, then how can he become sinful for desisting from nurturing it? Whereas the Prophet has said, “The best struggle is struggling against the self” [Abu Ghuddah p.184 n. 2]. Starving the self is struggling against it, hence it is not permitted to render that a sin.

But we say: The struggling against the self is bringing it to religious acts of devotion, while starving it in this regard is tantamount to forgoing worship, not bringing it to perform the religious acts of devotion. We have explained that the self is a bearer of the trusts of Allah, and Allah has created the self inviolate that it may fulfil the trust that it carries, but that objective is not attained except by eating when needed; and that without which a due is not fulfilled is itself a due.

As for the youth who fears for his self lest it give way to licentiousness and succumb to fornication then there is no harm in desisting from eating in order to break its desire, hence starving the self in a manner that does not incapacitate it from observing religious acts of devotion is recommended, for the Prophet has said, “O youth, marriage is incumbent on you, but whosoever is not able to do so then he should fast, for it is for him a shield” [Narrated by al-Bukhari].

Moreover, the youth benefit from forgoing eating in this case, such that by this measure they prevent themselves from committing iniquities, in line with what has been told of Abu Bakr al-Warraq that he said, “In starving the self lies its satiation, and in satiating it lies its starvation.” He then clarified that statement by saying, “When it is starving and yearns for food, it is satiated from all iniquities; but when it is satiated with food, it hungers and yearns for all iniquities.”

And since safeguarding from committing iniquity is obligatory, and such an objective is indeed attained to by this manner of starvation, then that measure is permissible.

References:

22 The Book of Earning-700x700

Kitab Al-Kasb Series (Part 39): Abomination of Seeking to Be Perpetually Satiated with Food.

Every Wednesday, I will share a part of the translation of the book Kitab Al-Kasb (the book of Earning a Livelihood) written by Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani.


Part 39: Abomination of Seeking to Be Perpetually Satiated with Food.
And likewise, one should not seek to be perpetually satiated with food, for the better way is what was chosen and explained by the Messenger of Allah, “I go hungry one day, and I am satiated one day” [Refer Abu Ghuddah]. A’ishah wept over Allah’s Messenger when he was taken (when his soul was taken away by Allah), and said, “O one who opted for the mat over the bed; O one who slept not at night out of fear of inferno; O one who wore not silk, not ate his fill of barley bread” [Abu Ghuddah says he has not come across this hadith].

A’ishah used to say, “Sometimes a month or more would pass without us lighting a fire in our homes, while there were only these two black things, water and dates” [Narrated by al-Bukhari, Muslim, al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Ahmad].

And we have narrated that the Prophet said, “The longest starving of people on the day of resurrection are the most satiated of them in the world” [Refer Abu Ghuddah]. Because of this, it is better to safeguard oneself from seeking to be continuously sated all the time.

References:

22 The Book of Earning-700x700

Kitab Al-Kasb Series (Part 38): Extravagance and Temperance in the Matter of Clothing.

Every Wednesday, I will share a part of the translation of the book Kitab Al-Kasb (the book of Earning a Livelihood) written by Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani.


Part 38: Extravagance and Temperance in the Matter of Clothing.
Imam Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani says, “The matter of clothing is analogous to eating in all that we have mentioned.”

This means that just as it is forbidden to be extravagant and profligate in the matter of eating, so too it is forbidden in the matter of clothing.

The basis in this ruling is what was narrated that the Prophet forbade two notorieties [Documented in al-Suyuti in al-Jami’ al-Saghir]. What is meant here is that one dons the garment of the utmost beauty and good quality in a manner which prompts fingers to point at it, or that one dons a garment of the utmost raggedness in a manner which also prompts fingers to point at it. One of these two extreme cases constitutes extravagance, while the other constitutes niggardliness whereas the best affairs are the moderate ones.

One should therefore at most times wears clothes that are washed clean, without burdening oneself with the good and the new, so as to realize in practice the statement of the Prophet “Shabbiness is part of faith” [Narrated by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim, Ahmad and al-Tabarani].

However, there is no harm in donning the best garment one can find during some of the festivals, occasions and congregations, due to what was narrated from the Prophet that he used to have a fennec jubbah gifted to him by al-Muqawqis, and he used to wear it during festivals and (Friday) congregations, while deputations would alight to have audience with him. And it is narrated that the Messenger of Allah used to have a qaba’ hemmed with silk, and he used to wear that on festivals and Friday congregations [Narrated by Muslim]

And furthermore in the donning of those garments on some occasions is the expression of blessing, for the Prophet says, “When Allah bestows His favor on his servant, He loves that its traces are seen on him” [Narrated by al-Tirmidhi]. But in troubling oneself with fine garments all the time there is something of the indication of pretentiousness, and that may incite rancor in people who are in need, and hence safeguarding from that is preferable.

Likewise, during winter time, a person should not seek refuge (from the cold) between two or three layers of outer garments if just one suffices him to ward off the cold, for that is galling to needy people, whereas one is prohibited from doing something that causes hurt to others, while his objective (to keep warm) is attained with something that avoids that.

It is better for him to choose coarse garments to wear, in accordance with what has been narrated from ‘Umar that he used to only wear coarse garment. If a person wears a coarse garment in the winter time, and soft garment in the summertime, there is no harm in that, for the coarse wards off from the cold what cannot be warded off by soft garment (used) in summertime, and he requires that protection from the cold during winter time. In contrast, the soft garment dries up perspiration in a manner that cannot be done by coarse garment, and he requires that in the summertime.

And if he wears a soft garment in both winter and summertime, that is also flexible for him, if he earns that the licit way for Allah says, “Say: Who has forbidden the finery of Allah, which Allah has produced for devotees, and wholesome means of subsistence?” [Al-Quran, surah Al-A’raf, verse 32].

Just as what we have explained is recommended for the matter of one’s food and clothing, so too it is recommended for the matter of one’s dependents food and clothing, for he is commanded to provide for them with goodness. And goodness is what is below excessiveness and beyond niggardliness, so much so that they say, “One should not take the trouble to produce all the that his dependents desire, nor deny them all their desires, but his provisioning for them should be in between that, for the best affairs are the moderate ones.”

References:

22 The Book of Earning-700x700

Kitab Al-Kasb Series (Part 37): Prohibition of Conceit, Bragging and Vying for More.

A conceit is forbidden, for it is narrated that the Prophet has said to al-Miqdad in respect of a garment that he wore, “Beware of conceit” [Narrated by al-Nasa’i, Ibn Majah and al-Bukhari]. In another hadith, “And sufficiency is not censured.”….

Every Wednesday, I will share a part of the translation of the book Kitab Al-Kasb (the book of Earning a Livelihood) written by Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani.


Part 37: Prohibition of Conceit, Bragging and Vying for More.
A conceit is forbidden, for it is narrated that the Prophet has said to al-Miqdad in respect of a garment that he wore, “Beware of conceit” [Narrated by al-Nasa’i, Ibn Majah and al-Bukhari]. In another hadith, “And sufficiency is not censured.”

Bragging and vying for more are forbidden, because of the statement of Allah, “Know that the life of the world is but diversion and distraction, and ostentation and boasting among yourselves, and striving for more and more property and children. It is like rain whose growth pleases the tillers then dies out and you see it turn yellow, and then it crumbles. In the hereafter, there is sever agony, and forgiveness from Allah, and acceptance. So what is the life of the world but the stuff of deception?” [Al-Quran, surah Al-Hadid, verse 20]. And Allah mentions this by way of censuring for that reason. He, the Most High says, “And do not be generous expecting much but be constant for your Lord” [Al-Quran, surah Al-Muddaththir, verse 6-7].

And Allah says, “Because he has wealth and sons” [Al-Quran, surah Al-Qalam verse 14]. And Allah says, “Vying for more diverts you” [Al-Quran, surah Al-Takathur, verse 1]. Thus we know that bragging and vying for more are forbidden.

References:

22 The Book of Earning-700x700

Kitab Al-Kasb Series (Part 36): Types of Squandering in Food.

There are various ways of squandering food. These include eating beyond satiety, for the Prophet says, “A son of Adam does not fill a vessel eviler than his stomach. If he cannot avoid it, then (let it be filled) one third with food, one third with drink, and one third with the breath” [Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Ahmad]. And the Prophet says, “A few small morsels are enough for the son of Adam to fortify his backbone” [Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Ahmad]. And he says, “There is no censure on sufficiency” [Narrated by Muslim, al-Tirmidhi, and Ahmad]….

Every Wednesday, I will share a part of the translation of the book Kitab Al-Kasb (the book of Earning a Livelihood) written by Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani.


Part 36: Types of Squandering in Food.
There are various ways of squandering food. These include eating beyond satiety, for the Prophet says, “A son of Adam does not fill a vessel eviler than his stomach. If he cannot avoid it, then (let it be filled) one third with food, one third with drink, and one third with the breath” [Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Ahmad]. And the Prophet says, “A few small morsels are enough for the son of Adam to fortify his backbone” [Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Ahmad]. And he says, “There is no censure on sufficiency” [Narrated by Muslim, al-Tirmidhi, and Ahmad].

For he only eats to benefit his self, however, there is no benefit in eating beyond satiation, but rather harm; and such an act amounts to casting away food on a dung heap, or worse. Furthermore, there is in whatever that is more than the amount of what one requires of food a right that belongs to another person, who will assuage with it his hunger when he sends it to him in exchange for payment or not in exchange for payment. Hence when the former partakes of it, he is actually committing a crime against the right of another person, and that is forbidden. And also eating beyond satiation may cause him to be ill, and that will be like injuring his own self.

The basis of this ruling is the narration that a man belched in a gathering of the Messenger whereupon the Messenger of Allah became annoyed at him and said, “Remove from us your belching! Do you not know that the people enduring the longest punishment on the day of the resurrection are the ones who are the most satiated in this world?” [Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, al-Mundhiri and Ibn Majah].

When Ibn Umar fell ill, the Prophet asked about the reason for his illness and it was said, “He has indigestion,” whereupon he said, “From what?” and it was said, “From eating too much.” Then the Prophet said, “Indeed if he had died I would not have attended his funeral nor prayed over him” [Abu Ghuddah says this narration does not make any sense which is hadha khabar batil].

When it was said to Umar, “Shall we not bring you some sweetmeat?” He said, “And what is sweetmeat?” It was said to him, “A digestive to digest the food.” He said, “Glory to be Allah! Should a Muslim eat beyond satiation?”

However, some of the latter-day scholars made an exception in this regard, which is that if there is sound purpose for eating beyond satiation, then there is no harm in that, such as when a guest comes visiting after he has eaten his fill, and he then eats with his guest so that he does not feel embarrassed for eating by himself. Likewise, when one wishes to fast the next day, then there is no harm in eating more than one’s fill in the night in order to fortify oneself for fasting in the day.

Squandering food also involves augmenting the number of permissible varieties of food, for the Prophet counts that as among the signs of the last hour, and he says, “Large bowls (of food) are circulated around their table spreads, while divine condemnation descends on them” [Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, a hadith of similar meaning].

It is narrated from A’ishah, that she was in reception, in which it was brought to her bowls after bowls (of food), whereupon she stood up and began to say, “Wasn’t the first bowl eaten? If it was, then what is this second bowl, when the first sufficed us? The Messenger of Allah used to forbid such as this” [Narrated by al-Tirmidhi a hadith of the similar meaning].

The exception is when this is done for a need, such as when one is bored with one kind, and so increases the varieties of permissible kinds, based on what was narrated that al-Hajjaj wrote to ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, complaining to him about three things, inability to eat and to enjoy sexual pleasure, and halting speech; whereupon he wrote back to him (saying), “Augment the varieties of your food, have new concubines each time and gaze at the females in the audiences during your oration.”

Squandering also involves serving on the dining table varieties of food beyond what is needed for eating, and we have explained that in any increase over the amount one needs, there is a right due to others; except when his objective is to invite group after group of guests until they finish the food, in which case there is no harm in that, for it is not destructive.

Squandering also involves eating the middle part of the bread loaf and leaving uneaten the periphery, or eating the fluffy part of the bread loaf, like some ignorant people do, thinking that that part is more delectable; however this is if others do not partake of the periphery parts that have been left aside, but if others partake of those, then there is no harm in that, for it is as if he is choosing to partake of one piece rather than another.

Squandering also involves handling the bread loaf after finishing eating without eating what one has handled, for others will find that to be gross and will not eat it; but if he eats what he has handled, then there is no harm in that.

Squandering also involves (the case) when one leaves aside a morsel that has fallen from one’s hand, but rather he should begin with that very morsel first and partake of it, for abandoning it would be taking food for granted, while partaking of it indicates honoring it, for we have been commanded to honor bread as the Prophet has said, “Show your respect to bread, for it is of the blessings of heaven and earth” [As a documented in Majma’ al-Zawa’id and narrated by al-Bazzar and al-Tabarani].

Showing respect to bread involves (the act of) not waiting for the condiments when the bread is already served, but rather to begin eating the bread even before the condiments are served. This ruling is so because people are recommended to express gratitude for favors and to safeguard themselves from ingratitude towards favors; whereas in abandoning the fallen morsel there is the meaning of ingratitude towards favors, and in immediately partaking of the bread before the condiments are served there is the meaning of display of gratitude for favors. When one is hungry, abstaining until the condiments are served is indicative of an aspect of tardiness, and one should safeguard oneself from that.

With regard to this matter, there is an anecdote (namely that) Abu Hanifah met Bahlul the Mad one day while he was sitting by the road eating food, whereupon he said, “Are you not ashamed of yourself for eating by the road?” He said, “O Abu Hanifah! You say this to me, while my soul is my creditor and bread is on my lap?; whereas the Prophet has said, “The tardiness of the rich is an injustice’ [Narrated by al-Bukhari and Muslim], and so how can I deny its right until I enter the house?”

References:

22 The Book of Earning-700x700

Kitab Al-Kasb Series (Part 35): Impermissibility of Spoiling Food and Squandering It.

And Imam Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani says, “Everyone is forbidden from destroying food, and destroying includes squandering.”…..

Every Wednesday, I will share a part of the translation of the book Kitab Al-Kasb (the book of Earning a Livelihood) written by Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani.


Part 35: Impermissibility of Spoiling Food and Squandering It.

And Imam Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani says, “Everyone is forbidden from destroying food, and destroying includes squandering.”

This injunction is due to what has been narrated that the Prophet forbade long palaver and too much questioning, and frittering away of wealth” [Narrated by al-Bukhari and Muslim]. Destroying food involves frittering away of wealth. The upshot is that it is forbidden for a person, in what he earns of the licit, to destroy, to squander, to show conceit, and to brag, and to vie for more (i.e. to accumulate for the sake of accumulation without a view to spending on good deeds and on provisions for dependents and on charity for the poor).

As for the destruction, it is prohibited because of the statement of Allah, “But seek the abode of the hereafter with what Allah has bestowed on you, but do not forget your part in this world. And be good, as Allah has been good to you. And do not seek corruption on earth, for Allah does not love the corrupt” [Al-Quran, surah Al-Qasas, verse 77]. And Allah says, “But when he is empowered, he strives to do violence on earth, destroying the crops and livestock. But Allah does not love violence” [Al-Quran, surah Al-Baqarah, verse 205].

As for squandering, it is prohibited due to the statement of Allah, “And do not be immoderate, for Allah does not love the excessive” [Al-Quran, surah Al-A’raf, verse 31]. And Allah says, “And those when they spend are neither extravagant nor stingy, but right in between” [Al-Quran, surah Al-Furqan, verse 67]. This is proof that squandering is prohibited, and miserliness is also prohibited, and that the recommended behavior is somewhere between the two extremes. In squandering there is wastefulness, whereas Allah says, “But do not squander wastefully” [Al-Quran, surah Al-Isra’, verse 26].

References:

22 The Book of Earning-700x700

Kitab Al-Kasb Series (Part 34): Warning Against Abstaining from Eating, Drinking and Taking Shelter.

“Whoever abstains from eating and drinking and taking shelter until he dies, has made entering the fire incumbent on him, for he has killed himself on purpose, it is as if he has killed himself with a piece of iron.” The prophet has said, “Whoever kills himself with a piece of iron, then it is that piece of iron in his hand with which he will stab himself in the fire of hell.” [Narrated by al-Bukhari and Muslim]….

Every Wednesday, I will share a part of the translation of the book Kitab Al-Kasb (the book of Earning a Livelihood) written by Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani.


Part 34: Warning Against Abstaining from Eating, Drinking and Taking Shelter.

“Whoever abstains from eating and drinking and taking shelter until he dies, has made entering the fire incumbent on him, for he has killed himself on purpose, it is as if he has killed himself with a piece of iron.” The prophet has said, “Whoever kills himself with a piece of iron, then it is that piece of iron in his hand with which he will stab himself in the fire of hell.” [Narrated by al-Bukhari and Muslim].

There are two ways to interpret the above-mentioned words which Imam Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani said. One of which is that he mentioned those words in the manner of giving a warning while rendering implicit in his statement the sound meaning, which is that he meant the entering which is the expiation of an oath. Allah says, “There is not one of you but will come to that point of hell; it is a determined necessity for Allah” [Al-Quran, surah Maryam, verse 71]. What is meant (by “coming to that point”) is “will enter it,” according to the People of the Sunnah and the Community.

Two, that the meaning is to explain about the requital of his deed, that is, that the requital of his deed is entering the fire, but that is by the will of Allah; if He wills He forgives him out of His bounty, and if He wills He enters him into the fire out of His justice. This is comparable to what is said in the explanation of the statement of Allah, Then his reward is hell, wherein he will remain” [Al-Quran, surah Al-Nisa’, verse 93]. This will be his reward of Allah so rewards him for it, however, He is Most Forgiving, Most Generous, showing His graciousness through forgiveness, and so He does not make abiding in the fire of hell anyone of the believers.

References:

22 The Book of Earning-700x700