InshaAllah, this time I’ll talk a little about the conditions that require us to pay zakat.
Generally, Zakat consists of two types:
- Zakat Fitr (namely as zakat on body, Zakat on month of Ramadhan etc.);
- Zakat on Wealth (Mal)
Zakat Fitr (Fitrah) – Zakat fitr is obligatory zakat which only required during month of Ramadan until before Aidulfitri prayers. The obligations were based on the Hadith of Prophet Muhammad SAW translated as:
Ibn Umar narrated, “Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) has made Sadaqat-ul-Fitr obligatory, (and it was), either one Sa’ (bushel) of barley or one Sa’ (bushel) of dates (and its payment was obligatory) on young and old people, and on free men as well as on slaves.” (Sahih al-Bukhari)
Thus, the conditions is simple, which as long as we are Muslims, and have some excess of food or wealth more than 1 (one) bushel. Although the Hadith stating the dates and wheat, but Islamic scholars have agreed that payment is facilitated according to local circumstances. As agreed in the National Fatwa Council of Malaysia:
The 57th Fatwa Committee of the National Council for Islamic Religious Affairs Dialogue which held on June 10, 2003 have discussed price determination of the payment of Zakat Fitr throughout Malaysia. The dialogue has concluded that:
Price of Zakat Fitr for the states in Peninsular Malaysia is determined based on the price of by BERNAS (National Rice Paddy Ltd) for rice Local Super Grade A by weight of 2.60kg which equivalent to Bagdhdad bushel.
Price zakat fitrah for the states of Sabah and Sarawak are based on the local price set by BERNAS, respectively for Vietnamese White Rice in the Sabah state and Thai White Rice for Sarawak State following weight of a bushel weights 2.70kg.
In fact, a lot more thing that can be discuss about the nature of zakat fitr, but I will stop here for now. Insha Allah I will add another more.
Zakat on Wealth – means removing specific amount from certain wealth to entitled recipients with certain conditions. The obligations was based on texts from the Quran that says:
“And establish prayer and give zakah, and whatever good you put forward for yourselves – you will find it with Allah. Indeed, Allah of what you do, is Seeing.”[Al-Baqarah (2): 110]
From many discussions, we can say Zakat on Wealth consists of five conditions, which is:
- Islam – Muslim regardless of age and gender.
- Independence – Independence and escapes from the shackles of slavery.
- Perfect Ownership – have the power to make any transactions on the property. Also the property is not the property of the public. For assets shared between Muslims and non-Muslims, only the Muslims will be considered.
- Sufficient on Hawl – Property ownership is more than a year. The evidence based on the hadith which means: Ibn Umar narrated “Those who have wealth, then there is no zakat on it until Hawl have passed while it is in his possession.” (Sahih Bukhari. Kitab Zakat).
- Sufficient on Nisab – Property exceeds the nisab (minimum value) in the time of Hawl. The evidence was from a hadith that says: Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib: “The Prophet (ﷺ) said: “When you possess two hundred dirhams and one year passes on them, five dirhams are payable. Nothing is incumbent on you, that is, on gold, till it reaches twenty dinars. When you possess twenty dinars and one year passes on them, half a dinar is payable. Whatever exceeds, that will be reckoned properly.”(Sunan Abu Dawud).
Of the five conditions above, I can say the least contradiction among prominent scholars was in conditions no. 1 and 2 (as was believed in general), but on condition no. 3, 4 and 5 had a long discussion itn its own right.
For example, in terms Sufficient on Hawl and the determination of the amount to be zakat-ed, some calculation are based on number of day in year of Hijri, and some are based on the year AD. In Malaysia, most zakat institutions used AD in their calculation from certain reason, but there is no objection to anyone who still upholds the Hijri year :).
In the discussion of Nisab, the own wealth should reach or exceed nisab that has been determined for certain year. According to the above hadith (Sunan Abu Dawud) we can see that the Prophet Muhammad took half (1/2) of dinar as zakat, when the owner have more than 20 dinar. Thus from that we can say 20 dinar is the nisab, and 0.5 is the zakat taken. Scholars have agreed, that we should measured value of 20 dinars base on the current value of gold (It was agreed 20 dinars equivalent to 85 grams of gold) which because nowadays we had not adopted the dinar currency in our daily transactions. Anyhow, zakat is not only mandatory for monetary assets and dinars, but also mandatory for crops, livestock and minerals which also has its own nisab itself (and also different !).
That’s a little review I can give for now.
Zakat is a broad topic and was always continuously growing following the times. This article were not nearly completely and satisfactory. InshaAllah I will continue the info again in other articles.